Genetic variants in the autophagy pathway contribute to paediatric Crohn's disease

Gut (Impact Factor: 13.32). 10/2008; 57(9):1336-7; author reply 1337. DOI: 10.1136/gut.2008.152207
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease is an immune-related disorder characterized by inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which can occur in any area throughout the digestive tract. This life-long disease commonly presents with abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss. While the exact etiology of this disease is largely unknown, it is thought to arise from an interaction between microbial, immunological, and environmental factors in a genetically susceptible host, whereby the immune system attacks the intestine as it cross reacts against gut microbial antigens. The study of genetic variants associated with Crohn's disease has shed light on our understanding of disease pathophysiology. A large number of genetic variants identified in Crohn's disease are related to genes targeting microbial recognition and bacterial wall sensing, the most common being NOD2/CARD15 gene. This review will discuss the recent advance in our knowledge of genetic variants of this disease and how they influence the disease course and prognosis.
    The Application of Clinical Genetics 07/2013; 6:25-32. DOI:10.2147/TACG.S33966
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    ABSTRACT: The regenerative abilities and the immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) make them potentially the ideal cellular product of choice for treatment of autoimmune and other immune mediated disorders. Although the usefulness of MSCs for therapeutic applications is in early phases, their potential clinical use remains of great interest. Current clinical evidence of use of MSCs from both autologous and allogeneic sources to treat autoimmune disorders confers conflicting clinical benefit outcomes. These varied results may possibly be due to MSC use across wide range of autoimmune disorders with clinical heterogeneity or due to variability of the cellular product. In the light of recent genome wide association studies (GWAS), linking predisposition of autoimmune diseases to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the susceptible genetic loci, the clinical relevance of MSCs possessing SNPs in the critical effector molecules of immunosuppression is largely undiscussed. It is of further interest in the allogeneic setting, where SNPs in the target pathway of MSC's intervention may also modulate clinical outcome. In the present review, we have discussed the known critical SNPs predisposing to disease susceptibility in various autoimmune diseases and their significance in the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs.
    11/2013; 2013:929842. DOI:10.1155/2013/929842
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical observations and epidemiological studies have highlighted some important differences in disease course and phenotypes between pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and adult-onset IBD. Also from a therapeutic angle, the approach to young-onset IBD is different with a more rapid introduction of azathioprine and a high threshold for long and systemic steroid use, which may affect bone mineral density and growth. The observed clinical differences have been an area of scientific research and genetic studies have been the focus of attention. Specific candidate gene studies as well as genome-wide association studies have been performed in pediatric IBD. With the exception of very early-onset IBD occurring before the age of 2 years; no overt differences in genetic susceptibility have been identified. In contrast, very early-onset IBD seems in particular to be a genetic disease with defects in the IL10 signaling pathway being the principal example. This review aims to answer some straightforward questions arising in this topic by giving concise information.
    Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 08/2014; 9(2). DOI:10.1586/17474124.2014.950228 · 2.55 Impact Factor