A20 inhibits LUBAC-mediated NF-κB activation by binding linear polyubiquitin chains via its zinc finger 7.
ABSTRACT Linear polyubiquitination of proteins has recently been implicated in NF-κB signalling and is mediated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), consisting of HOIL-1, HOIP and Sharpin. However, the mechanisms that regulate linear ubiquitination are still unknown. Here, we show that A20 is rapidly recruited to NEMO and LUBAC upon TNF stimulation and that A20 inhibits LUBAC-induced NF-κB activation via its C-terminal zinc-finger 7 (ZF7) domain. Expression of a polypeptide corresponding to only ZF7 was sufficient to inhibit TNF-induced NF-κB activation. Both A20 and ZF7 can form a complex with NEMO and LUBAC, and are able to prevent the TNF-induced binding of NEMO to LUBAC. Finally, we show that ZF7 preferentially binds linear polyubiquitin chains in vitro, indicating A20-ZF7 as a novel linear ubiquitin-binding domain (LUBID). We thus propose a model in which A20 inhibits TNF- and LUBAC-induced NF-κB signalling by binding to linear polyubiquitin chains via its seventh zinc finger, which prevents the TNF-induced interaction between LUBAC and NEMO.
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ABSTRACT: A single risk haplotype across UBE2L3 is strongly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and many other autoimmune diseases. UBE2L3 is an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme with specificity for RING-in-between-RING E3 ligases, including HOIL-1 and HOIP, components of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), which has a pivotal role in inflammation, through crucial regulation of NF-κB. We aimed to determine whether UBE2L3 regulates LUBAC-mediated activation of NF-κB, and determine the effect of UBE2L3 genotype on NF-κB activation and B-cell differentiation.The Lancet 02/2015; 385. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60324-5 · 39.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A20 protects against pathologic vascular remodeling by inhibiting the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. A20's function has been attributed to ubiquitin editing of receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) to influence activity/stability. The validity of this mechanism was tested using a murine model of transplant vasculopathy and human cells. Mouse C57BL/6 aortae transduced with adenoviruses containing A20 (or β-galactosidase as a control) were allografted into major histocompatibility complex-mismatched BALB/c mice. Primary endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, or transformed epithelial cells (all human) were transfected with wild-type A20 or with catalytically inactive mutants as a control. NF-κB activity and intracellular localization of RIP1 was monitored by reporter gene assay, immunofluorescent staining, and Western blotting. Native and catalytically inactive versions of A20 had similar inhibitory effects on NF-κB activity (-70% vs. -76%; P > 0.05). A20 promoted localization of RIP1 to insoluble aggresomes in murine vascular allografts and in human cells (53% vs. 0%) without altering RIP1 expression, and this process was increased by the assembly of polyubiquitin chains (87% vs. 28%; P < 0.05). A20 captures polyubiquitinated signaling intermediaries in insoluble aggresomes, thus reducing their bioavailability for downstream NF-κB signaling. This novel mechanism contributes to protection from vasculopathy in transplanted organs treated with exogenous A20.-Enesa, K., Moll, H. P., Luong, L., Ferran, C., Evans, P. C. A20 suppresses vascular inflammation by recruiting proinflammatory signaling molecules to intracellular aggresomes. © FASEB.The FASEB Journal 02/2015; DOI:10.1096/fj.14-258533 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ubiquitination, also denoted ubiquitylation, is a posttranslational modification that has been implicated in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Ubiquitination plays crucial roles in innate immune signaling by ensuring the proper orchestration of several signaling mediators that constitute a functional immune response. Herein, we briefly summarize the latest discoveries concerning the molecular ubiquitination-related machinery that senses, assembles, and disassembles innate immune signaling mediators. Introduction The mammalian immune system, which involves a complex yet tightly regulated network of interactions among different types of cells, cell receptors, and signaling pathways, constantly battles invading pathogens. In addition to the aforementioned immune-system participants, its specificity and complexity also depend on posttranslational modifications of proteins involved in the initiation, maintenance, and termination of immune responses. These posttranslational modifications involve the addition of a chemical group or another protein(s) at one or more site of substrate. To date, more than 200 types of posttranslational modifications have been reported (Kho et al., 2004); with phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation being the most extensively studied and well characterized. Ubiquitination is a key posttranslational modification regulating numerous biological processes at various cellular levels, e.g., protein trafficking, the cell cycle, and immune responses. The addition of ubiquitin to a substrate protein usually involves three main steps: activation by a ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), conjugation by aCurrent issues in molecular biology 01/2016; 18:1-10. · 6.00 Impact Factor