The therapeutic journey of benzimidazoles: A review
ABSTRACT Presence of benzimidazole nucleus in numerous categories of therapeutic agents such as antimicrobials, antivirals, antiparasites, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, proton pump inhibitors, antihypertensives, anticoagulants, immunomodulators, hormone modulators, CNS stimulants as well as depressants, lipid level modulators, antidiabetics, etc. has made it an indispensable anchor for development of new therapeutic agents. Varied substitutents around the benzimidazole nucleus have provided a wide spectrum of biological activities. Importance of this nucleus in some activities like, Angiotensin I (AT(1)) receptor antagonism and proton-pump inhibition is reviewed separately in literature. Even some very short reviews on biological importance of this nucleus are also known in literature. However, owing to fast development of new drugs possessing benzimidazole nucleus many research reports are generated in short span of time. So, there is a need to couple the latest information with the earlier information to understand the current status of benzimidazole nucleus in medicinal chemistry research. In the present review, various derivatives of benzimidazole with different pharmacological activities are described on the basis of substitution pattern around the nucleus with an aim to help medicinal chemists for developing an SAR on benzimidazole derived compounds for each activity. This discussion will further help in the development of novel benzimidazole compounds.
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ABSTRACT: In the present letter, an efficient, clean and one pot synthesis of 2-substituted benzimidazole and 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazole derivatives have been explored by reacting o-phenylenediamine with aromatic aldehydes using bismuth nitrate as a catalyst in ethanol at ambient temperature. This methodology avails with faster reactions, excellent yield, mild reaction conditions, use of inexpensive and non-toxic catalyst compared to literature reported hitherto.Chinese Chemical Letters 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cclet.2015.04.012 · 1.18 Impact Factor
- 01/2015; DOI:10.4172/2161-0444.1000243
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ABSTRACT: The internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element located at the 5´untranslated genomic region of various RNA viruses mediates cap-independent initiation of translation. Picornavirus IRES activity is highly dependent on both its structural organization and its interaction with host factors. Small molecules able to interfere with RNA function are valuable candidates for antiviral agents. Here we show that a small molecule based on benzimidazole (IRAB) inhibited foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) IRES-dependent protein synthesis in cells transfected with infectious RNA leading to a decrease of the virus titer, which was higher than that induced by a structurally related benzimidazole derivative. Interestingly, IRAB preferentially inhibited IRES-dependent translation in cell free systems in a dose-dependent manner. RNA structural analysis by SHAPE demonstrated an increased local flexibility of the IRES structure upon incubation with IRAB, which affected three stem-loops (SL) of domain 3. Fluorescence binding assays conducted with individual aminopurine-labeled oligoribonucleotides indicated that the SL3A binds IRAB (EC50 18 µM). Taken together, the results derived from SHAPE reactivity and fluorescence binding assays suggested that the target site of IRAB within the FMDV IRES might be a folded RNA structure that involves the entire apical region of domain 3. Our data suggest that the conformational changes induced by this compound on a specific region of the IRES structure which is essential for its activity is, at least in part, responsible for the reduced IRES efficiency observed in cell free lysates and, particularly, in RNA-transfected cells.RNA Biology 03/2015; 12(5). DOI:10.1080/15476286.2015.1025190 · 5.38 Impact Factor