The therapeutic journey of benzimidazoles: A review.
ABSTRACT Presence of benzimidazole nucleus in numerous categories of therapeutic agents such as antimicrobials, antivirals, antiparasites, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, proton pump inhibitors, antihypertensives, anticoagulants, immunomodulators, hormone modulators, CNS stimulants as well as depressants, lipid level modulators, antidiabetics, etc. has made it an indispensable anchor for development of new therapeutic agents. Varied substitutents around the benzimidazole nucleus have provided a wide spectrum of biological activities. Importance of this nucleus in some activities like, Angiotensin I (AT(1)) receptor antagonism and proton-pump inhibition is reviewed separately in literature. Even some very short reviews on biological importance of this nucleus are also known in literature. However, owing to fast development of new drugs possessing benzimidazole nucleus many research reports are generated in short span of time. So, there is a need to couple the latest information with the earlier information to understand the current status of benzimidazole nucleus in medicinal chemistry research. In the present review, various derivatives of benzimidazole with different pharmacological activities are described on the basis of substitution pattern around the nucleus with an aim to help medicinal chemists for developing an SAR on benzimidazole derived compounds for each activity. This discussion will further help in the development of novel benzimidazole compounds.
- SourceAvailable from: sciencedirect.com[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Coumarin–benzimidazole hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated for anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and chronic gastric ulceration potentials. Compounds 4c, 4d and 5a displayed the best anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and proved to be gastric safe.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slideActa Pharmaceutica Sinica B. 08/2014;
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recently, Dientamoeba fragilis has emerged as a significant and common enteropathogen. The majority of patients with dientamoebiasis present with gastrointestinal complaints and chronic symptoms are common. Numerous studies have successfully demonstrated parasite clearance, coupled with complete resolution of clinical symptoms following treatment with various antiparasitic compounds. Despite this, there is very little in vitro susceptibility data available for the organism. Benzimidazoles are a class of antiparasitic drugs that are commonly used for the treatment of protozoan and helminthic infections. Susceptibility testing was undertaken on four D. fragilis clinical isolates against the following benzimidazoles: albendazole, flubendazole, mebendazole, nocodazole, triclabendazole and thiabendazole. The activities of the antiprotozoal compounds at concentrations ranging from 2 μg/mL to 500 μg/mL were determined via cell counts of D. fragilis grown in xenic culture. All tested drugs showed no efficacy. The beta-tubulin transcript was sequenced from two of the D. fragilis isolates and amino acid sequences predicted a susceptibility to benzimidazoles. This is the first study to report susceptibility profiles for benzimidazoles against D. fragilis, all of which were not active against the organism. This study also found that beta-tubulin sequences cannot be used as a reliable marker for resistance of benzimidazoles in D. fragilis.Parasite 01/2014; 21:41. · 0.82 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A library of eighty-six assorted benzimidazole derivatives was screened for antiviral activity against a panel of ten RNA and DNA viruses. Fifty-two of them displayed different levels of activity against one or more viruses, among which CVB-5, RSV, BVDV and Sb-1 were the most frequently affected. In particular, fourteen compounds exhibited an EC50 in the range 9-17μM (SI from 6 to >11) versus CVB-5, and seven compounds showed an EC50 in the range 5-15μM (SI from 6.7 to ⩾20) against RSV, thus resulting comparable to or more potent than the respective reference drugs (NM108 and ribavirin). Most of these compounds derive from 2-benzylbenzimidazole, but also other molecular scaffolds [as 1-phenylbenzimidazole (2), 2-trifluoromethylbenzimidazole (69), dihydropyrido[3',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a][1,4]benzodiazepin-5-one (3), dibenzo[c,e]benzimidazo[1,2-a]azepine (22), and 2-(tetrahydropyran-2-yl)benzimidazole (81, 82 and 86)] are related to interesting levels of activity against these or other viruses (BVDV, Sb-1). Thus, these scaffolds (some of which, so far unexplored), represent valid starting points to develop more efficient agents against pathologies caused by CVB-5, RSV, BVDV and Sb-1 viruses.Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 07/2014; · 2.90 Impact Factor