Article

HIV-2 integrase gene polymorphism and phenotypic susceptibility of HIV-2 clinical isolates to the integrase inhibitors raltegravir and elvitegravir in vitro.

AP-HP, Groupe hospitalier Bichat-Claude Bernard, Laboratoire de Virologie, Paris F-75018, France.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 5.44). 09/2008; 62(5):914-20. DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkn335
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We investigated the in vitro phenotypic susceptibility of HIV-2 isolates from integrase inhibitor (INI)-naive patients to INIs and its relation to HIV-2 integrase gene polymorphism.
We determined the phenotypic susceptibility to raltegravir and elvitegravir of co-cultured isolates obtained from the HIV-2 ROD reference strain and from 14 clinical isolates. IC(50) values were compared with those for HIV-1 reference strains. HIV-2 integrase gene polymorphism was assessed in isolates from 52 INI-naive patients enrolled in the French HIV-2 cohort.
Median raltegravir and elvitegravir IC(50) values for the 14 clinical HIV-2 isolates were 2.4 and 0.7 nM, respectively, and were similar to those observed for HIV-2 ROD and HIV-1 reference strains. Overall, 38% of HIV-2 integrase amino acids were polymorphic. The catalytic triad DDE and the HHCC and RKK motifs were fully conserved, at the same genomic positions as described in HIV-1. In subtype B isolates, the total length of the integrase gene varied, owing to the presence of stop codons at positions 288, 294, 297 and 302. Fourteen of the positions associated with substitutions conferring INI resistance in HIV-1 were polymorphic in HIV-2.
Despite 40% heterogeneity between the HIV-1 and HIV-2 integrase genes, the phenotypic susceptibility of clinical HIV-2 isolates to INIs was similar to that of HIV-1. This new class of antiretroviral drugs thus represents a novel therapeutic possibility for HIV-2-infected patients who otherwise have few treatment options.

0 Followers
 · 
114 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infects about 2 million people worldwide. HIV-2 has fewer treatment options than HIV-1, yet may evolve drug resistance more quickly. We have analyzed several novel drugs for anti-HIV-2 activity. It was observed that 5-azacytidine, clofarabine, gemcitabine and resveratrol have potent anti-HIV-2 activity. The EC50 values for 5-azacytidine, clofarabine and resveratrol were found to be significantly lower with HIV-2 compared to that of HIV-1. A time-of-addition assay was used to analyze the ability of these drugs to interfere with HIV-2 replication. Reverse transcription was the likely target for antiretroviral activity. Taken together, several novel drugs have been discovered to have activity against HIV-2. Based upon their known activities, these drugs may elicit enhanced HIV-2 mutagenesis and therefore be useful for inducing HIV-2 lethal mutagenesis. In addition, the data are consistent with HIV-2 reverse transcriptase (RT) being more sensitive than HIV-1 RT to dNTP pool alterations.
    Journal of General Virology 08/2014; DOI:10.1099/vir.0.069864-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dolutegravir recently became the third integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) approved for use in HIV-1-infected individuals. In contrast to the extensive dataset for HIV-1, in vitro studies and clinical reports of dolutegravir for HIV-2 are limited. To evaluate the potential role of dolutegravir in HIV-2 treatment, we compared the susceptibilities of wild-type and INSTI-resistant HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains to the drug using single-cycle assays, spreading infections of immortalized T cells, and site-directed mutagenesis. HIV-2 group A, HIV-2 group B, and HIV-1 isolates from INSTI-naïve individuals were comparably sensitive to dolutegravir in the single-cycle assay (mean EC50 values = 1.9, 2.6, and 1.3 nM, respectively). Integrase substitutions E92Q, Y143C, E92Q + Y143C, and Q148R conferred relatively low levels of resistance to dolutegravir in HIV-2ROD9 (2- to 6-fold), but Q148K, E92Q + N155H, T97A + N155H and G140S + Q148R resulted in moderate resistance (10- to 46-fold), and the combination of T97A + Y143C in HIV-2ROD9 conferred high-level resistance (>5000-fold). In contrast, HIV-1NL4-3 mutants E92Q + N155H, G140S + Q148R, and T97A + Y143C showed 2-fold, 4-fold, and no increase in EC50, respectively, relative to the parental strain. The resistance phenotypes for E92Q + N155H, and G140S + Q148R HIV-2ROD9 were also confirmed in spreading infections of CEM-ss cells. Our data support the use of dolutegravir in INSTI-naïve HIV-2 patients but suggest that, relative to HIV-1, a broader array of replacements in HIV-2 integrase may enable cross-resistance between dolutegravir and other INSTI. Clinical studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of dolutegravir in HIV-2-infected individuals, including patients previously treated with raltegravir or elvitegravir.
    Retrovirology 12/2015; 12(1). DOI:10.1186/s12977-015-0146-8 · 4.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present study, a new series of β-carboline derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition activity against both HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains. Among these reported analogues, surprisingly (1-phenyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)(4-p-tolylpiperazin-1-yl)methanone (7b), (4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)(1-phenyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)methanone (7f), (4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)(1-phenyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)methanone (7k), (4-(2-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)(1-phenyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)methanone (7l) displayed selective inhibition of HIV-2 strain with EC50 values of 3.3, 3.2, 2.6 and 5.4μM, respectively, which are comparable with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors lamivudine and dideoxyinosine. As these analogues have not shown in vitro HIV-2 reverse transcriptase inhibition, it could be excluded as potential target for their specific anti-HIV-2 activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 01/2015; 81(6). DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2015.01.058 · 2.33 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
1 Download
Available from