Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase is essential for oxidative stress-induced Jurkat cell apoptosis by monochloramine
ABSTRACT Leukemic cell apoptosis may be enhanced by appropriate oxidative stress. We report here the mechanism of Jurkat cell apoptosis by monochloramine (NH(2)Cl), a neutrophil-derived oxidant. NH(2)Cl induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, which was preceded by cytochrome c and Smac/Diablo release from mitochondria. Within 10min of NH(2)Cl treatment, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) were observed. JNK inhibitors (SP600125 or JNK inhibitor VIII) significantly suppressed the apoptosis as well as caspase cleavage and cytochrome c release. In contrast, Ca(2+) chelation by EGTA+acetoxymethyl-EGTA had no effects on apoptosis. Our results indicated that JNK activation contributed most importantly to the NH(2)Cl-induced apoptosis.
SourceAvailable from: Bruno César Feltes[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The knowledge available about the application and generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) has grown since their discovery, and new techniques to enhance the reprogramming process have been described. Among the new approaches to induce iPSC that have gained great attention is the use of small molecules for reprogramming. The application of small molecules, unlike genetic manipulation, provides for control of the reprogramming process through the shifting of concentrations and the combination of different molecules. However, different researchers have reported the use of "reprogramming cocktails" with variable results and drug combinations. Thus, the proper combination of small molecules for successful and enhanced reprogramming is a matter for discussion. However, testing all potential drug combinations in different cell lineages is very costly and time-consuming. Therefore, in this article, we discuss the use of already employed molecules for iPSC generation, followed by the application of systems chemo-biology tools to create different data sets of protein-protein (PPI) and chemical-protein (CPI) interaction networks based on the knowledge of already used and new reprogramming cocktail combinations. We further analyzed the biological processes associated with PPI-CPI networks and provided new potential protein targets to be inhibited or expressed for stem cell reprogramming. In addition, we applied a new interference analysis to prospective targets that could negatively affect the classical pluripotency-associated factors (SOX2, NANOG, KLF4 and OCT4) and thus potentially improve reprogramming protocols.Molecular BioSystems 09/2013; DOI:10.1039/c3mb70159j · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases no matter if it resulted from type I or type II diabetes mellitus. High glucose-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to diabetic cardiomyopathy. In our previous study, we showed that NADPH oxidase-related ROS-induced apoptosis is mediated via the JNK-dependent activation of NF-κB in cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose (HG). OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the mechanisms governing the anti-apoptotic effect of diallyl trisulfide (DATS) on HG-exposed cardiac cells both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: H9c2 cells were incubated with media containing 5.5 or 33mM of glucose for 36h in the presence or absence of DATS. RESULTS: We found that DATS treatment led to a dose-dependent decrease in ROS levels as well as protein levels of p22phox, gp91phox, phosphorylated JNK, and phosphorylated c-Jun. In addition, DATS inhibited the HG-induced activation of caspase 3 as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Similar results were observed in HG-exposed neonatal primary cardiomyocytes and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Echocardiographic data showed that DATS administration led to a marked increase in fractional shortening and cardiac output. CONCLUSION: DATS appears to suppress high glucose-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by inhibiting NADPH oxidase-related ROS and its downstream JNK/NF-κB signaling, and may possess the potential on the therapy of diabetic cardiomyopathy.International journal of cardiology 11/2012; 168(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.09.080 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The induction of leukemic cell differentiation is a hopeful therapeutic modality. We studied the effects of monochloramine (NH2Cl) on erythroleukemic K562 cell differentiation, and compared the effects observed with those of U0126 and staurosporine, which are known inducers of erythroid and megakaryocytic differentiation, respectively. CD235 (glycophorin) expression, a marker of erythroid differentiation, was significantly increased by NH2Cl and U0126, along with an increase in cd235 mRNA levels. Other erythroid markers such as γ-globin and CD71 (transferring receptor) were also increased by NH2Cl and U0126. In contrast, CD61 (integrin β3) and CD42b (GP1bα) expression, markers of megakaryocytic differentiation, was increased by staurosporine, but did not change significantly by NH2Cl and U0126. NH2Cl retarded cell proliferation without a marked loss of viability. When ERK phosphorylation (T202/Y204) and CD235 expression were compared using various chemicals, a strong negative correlation was observed (r=-0.76). Paradoxically, NH2Cl and staurosporine, but not U0126, induced large cells with multiple or lobulated nuclei, which was characteristic to megakaryocytes. NH2Cl increased the mRNA levels of gata1 and scl, decreased that of gata2, and did not change those of pu.1and klf1. The changes observed in mRNA expression were different from those of U0126 or staurosporine. These results suggest that NH2Cl induces the bidirectional differentiation of K562. Oxidative stress may be effective in inducing leukemic cell differentiation.Free Radical Research 11/2013; DOI:10.3109/10715762.2013.865840 · 2.99 Impact Factor