Distribution of an intravenous injectable nimodipine nanosuspension in mice.
ABSTRACT The distribution of an intravenous injectable nimodipine nanosuspension with mean particle size of both 300 and 650 nm in mice was systemically investigated compared with that of a nimodipine ethanol formulation (Nimotop) and a nanosuspension coated with Tween-80. The results showed that the 650-nm nanoparticles provided significantly higher drug concentrations in the liver, spleen and lungs because of their capture by Kupffer cells in the mononuclear phagocyte system, but lower drug concentrations in the brain compared with Nimotop and smaller nanoparticles. These nanoparticles failed to give increased brain concentrations even when coated with Tween-80. The 300-nm nanoparticles could effectively increase drug concentrations in the brain and remarkably reduce drug concentrations in the liver, spleen and lungs, indicating that the nimodipine nanosuspension may be a promising formulation with no ethanol, but the particle size must be small.
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ABSTRACT: It was reported that nanoparticles with polysorbate 80 (Tween 80, T-80) coating represented tools used for delivering drugs to brain. Nevertheless, disputations were once aroused for some complications. Aimed to have a better understanding of the specific role of T-80 coating on nanoparticles and simplify the problem, the direct observation of brain targeting combined with in vivo experiments was carried out in this work using the model nanoparticles (MNPs). The presence of a complex composed by the model loading, T-80 and nanoparticles was found in the preparation of MNPs. The result was further supported by some surface properties of MNPs. Being bound to nanoparticles that were overcoated by T-80 later, was necessary for the loading to be delivered to brain. Partial coverage was enough for T-80 coating to play a specific role in brain targeting. It seemed that brain targeting of nanoparticles was concerned with the interaction between T-80 coating and brain micro-vessel endothelial cells. Therefore, the specific role of T-80 coating on nanoparticles in brain targeting was confirmed.Biomaterials 08/2004; 25(15):3065-71. · 7.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An increasing number of newly developed drugs are poorly soluble; in many cases drugs are poorly soluble in both aqueous and organic media excluding the traditional approaches of overcoming such solubility factors and resulting in bioavailability problems. An alternative and promising approach is the production of drug nanoparticles (i.e. nanosuspensions) to overcome these problems. The major advantages of this technology are its general applicability to most drugs and its simplicity. In this article, the production of nanoparticles on a laboratory scale is presented, special features such as increased saturation solubility and dissolution velocity are discussed, and special applications are highlighted, for example, mucoadhesive nanosuspensions for oral delivery and surface-modified drug nanoparticles for site-specific delivery to the brain. The possibilities of large scale production -- the prerequisite for the introduction of a delivery system to the market -- are also discussed.Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 04/2001; 47(1):3-19. · 12.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The blood--brain barrier (BBB) represents an insurmountable obstacle for a large number of drugs, including antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, and a variety of central nervous system (CNS)-active drugs, especially neuropeptides. One of the possibilities to overcome this barrier is a drug delivery to the brain using nanoparticles. Drugs that have successfully been transported into the brain using this carrier include the hexapeptide dalargin, the dipeptide kytorphin, loperamide, tubocurarine, the NMDA receptor antagonist MRZ 2/576, and doxorubicin. The nanoparticles may be especially helpful for the treatment of the disseminated and very aggressive brain tumors. Intravenously injected doxorubicin-loaded polysorbate 80-coated nanoparticles were able to lead to a 40% cure in rats with intracranially transplanted glioblastomas 101/8. The mechanism of the nanoparticle-mediated transport of the drugs across the blood-brain barrier at present is not fully elucidated. The most likely mechanism is endocytosis by the endothelial cells lining the brain blood capillaries. Nanoparticle-mediated drug transport to the brain depends on the overcoating of the particles with polysorbates, especially polysorbate 80. Overcoating with these materials seems to lead to the adsorption of apolipoprotein E from blood plasma onto the nanoparticle surface. The particles then seem to mimic low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and could interact with the LDL receptor leading to their uptake by the endothelial cells. After this the drug may be released in these cells and diffuse into the brain interior or the particles may be transcytosed. Other processes such as tight junction modulation or P-glycoprotein (Pgp) inhibition also may occur. Moreover, these mechanisms may run in parallel or may be cooperative thus enabling a drug delivery to the brain.Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 04/2001; 47(1):65-81. · 12.89 Impact Factor