Assessment of 18F-labeled mitochondrial complex I inhibitors as PET myocardial perfusion imaging agents in rats, rabbits, and primates.
ABSTRACT Myocardial extractions of mitochondria complex I (MC-I) inhibitors were high and well correlated with flow. This study assessed the potential of MC-I inhibitors to be developed as myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) agents.
RP1003, RP1004, and RP1005 representing three classes of MC-I inhibitor were synthesized and radio-labeled with (18)F. These agents were evaluated for IC(50) values, tissue biodistribution, and cardiac PET imaging. (18)F-RP1004 was further examined for first-pass extraction and by imaging in non-human primates (NHP) and rats following coronary ligation.
RP1003, RP1004, and RP1005 exhibited high MC-I inhibitory activity with IC(50) of 3.7, 16.7, and 14.4 nM. Heart uptakes in rats (percent injected dose per gram tissue) at 15 and 60 min after injection were 3.52 +/- 0.36 and 2.68 +/- 0.20 for (18)F-RP1003, 2.40 +/- 0.21 and 2.67 +/- 0.27 for (18)F-RP1004, and 2.28 +/- 0.12 and 1.81 +/- 0.17 for (18)F-RP1005. The heart to lung and liver uptake ratios were favorable for cardiac imaging with these agents. In isolated perfused rabbit hearts, the uptake of (18)F-RP1004 increased from 0.74 +/- 0.19 to 1.68 +/- 0.39 mL/min/g at flow rates of 1.66 to 5.06 mL/min/g. These values were higher than or similar to that of (99m)Tc-sestamibi. Cardiac imaging with these agents in rats and rabbits allowed visualization of the heart with minimal lung interference and rapid liver activity clearance. Imaging with (18)F-RP1004 also showed clear myocardium and marked liver activity washout in the NHP and clear detection of the perfusion-deficit area associated with left coronary artery ligation in the rat.
MC-I inhibitors have the potential to be a new class of MPI agent.