A Population's Mean Healthy Eating Index2005 Scores Are Best Estimated by the Score of the Population Ratio when One 24Hour Recall

Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, Tel Hashomer, 52161 Israel.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 10/2008; 138(9):1725-9.
Source: PubMed


The USDA Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) is a tool to quantify and evaluate the quality of diet consumed by the U.S. population. It comprises 12 components, expressed as ratios of a food group or nutrient to energy intake. The components are scored on a scale from 0 to M, where M is 5, 10, or 20. Ideally, the HEI-2005 is calculated on the basis of the usual dietary intake of an individual. Intake data, collected via a 24-h recall, are often available for only 1 d for each individual. In this article, we examine how best to estimate a population's mean usual HEI-2005 component and total scores when 1 d of dietary information is available for a sample of individuals from the population. Three methods are considered: the mean of individual scores, the score of the mean of individual ratios, and the score of the ratio of total food group or nutrient intake to total energy intake, which we call the population ratio. We investigate via computer simulation which method is the least biased. The simulations are based on statistical modeling of the distributions of intakes reported by 738 women participating in the Eating at America's Table Study. The results show that overall, the score of the population ratio is the preferred method. We therefore recommend that the quality of the U.S. population's diet be assessed and monitored using this method.

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Available from: Phillip Kott, May 12, 2014
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    • "For example, is the increase in diet quality due to general improvements across the population at a steady rate or due to larger improvements amongst those with the lowest (or highest) diet quality? To address 6 There are various ways to calculate the HEI score for a population of interest (see Freedman et al. (2008, 2010) for in depth discussions). Because we are interested in the number and depth of individuals below a particular HEI score, we use the mean score of individuals instead of the more frequently used score of the population ratio. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper uses stochastic dominance to measure changes in the distribution of overall dietary quality in the U.S. over the period 1989{2008. Diet quality is often used as as a proxy for wellbeing and an outcome variable for a wide variety of interventions. For the population as a whole, we nd signi cant improvements in diets across all levels of dietary quality. Further, we nd improvements for both low-income and higher-income individuals alike. We show that the improvements vary between these groups with regards to the timing and distributional location. Further, we nd that over half of the improvement for all individuals can be explained by changes in food formulation and changes in demographics.
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    • "We call this the score of the population ratio. The HEI-2005 total score is calculated as the sum of these scores over the 12 components [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) to assess diet quality and determine the relationship between the HEI-2005 and the energy and nutrient intakes of adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,104 healthy adolescents, mean age of 15.8 ± 1.24 years. Dietary intake was measured with the 24-hour dietary recall method, and dietary quality was assessed by means of the HEI-2005. Diet quality scores ranged from 23.7 to 77.5. The mean score was found to be 51.5 ± 9.07 according to the HEI-2005. There were no differences according to gender; 42.8% had a poor diet and 57.2% had a diet that needs improvement. No subjects had a "good diet". Lower mean subgroup scores were found for whole grains, total vegetables, total fruits, dairy products, and meat and beans. Fruits and vegetables scores were significantly high in girls, whereas sodium, oil, and meat and beans scores were significantly high in boys. Total HEI-2005 scores were increasingly associated with parental education level when age and gender were adjusted. There was a negative correlation between HEI-2005 scores and age, total energy intake, and fat intake. Positive correlation was only observed in the HEI-2005 scores for protein and dietary fibre intakes. Consequently, the overall diet quality and nutritional habits of Turkish adolescents need modification and improvement. In the family, measures should be initiated by the government, including advertisements and campaigns.
    Nutrition research and practice 08/2011; 5(4):322-8. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2011.5.4.322 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    • "The HEI-2005 now reflects all components of the MyPyramid eating plan, including grains/whole grains, fruit/fruit juice, variety in vegetable and fat types, non/low fat dairy, sodium, and discretionary calories [35]. Traditionally, population HEI-2005 scores have been used with a single 24-hour dietary recall [48], but recently it was shown that it could also be used when multiple recalls were available [49]. "
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    ABSTRACT: One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ) has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to examine the association of 100% FJ consumption with diet quality in participants 2-5 years of age (y) (n = 1665), 6-12 y (n = 2446), 13-18 y (n = 3139), and 19+y (n = 8861). Two 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine usual intake using the National Cancer Institute method. Usual intake, standard errors, and regression analyses (juice independent variable and Healthy Eating Index-2005 [HEI-2005] components were dependent variables), using appropriate covariates, were determined using sample weights. The percentage of participants 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y that consumed 100% FJ was 71%, 57%, 45%, and 62%, respectively. Usual intake of 100% FJ (ounce [oz]/day) among the four age groups was: 5.8 ± 0.6, 2.6 ± 0.4, 3.7 ± 0.4, and 2.4 ± 0.2 for those in age groups 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y, respectively. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher energy intake in 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y; and higher total, saturated, and discretionary fats in 13-18 y participants. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher total HEI-2005 scores in all age groups (< 0.0001). In 100% FJ consumers, total and whole fruit consumption was higher and intake of added sugars was lower in all age groups. Usual intake of 100% FJ consumption exceeded MyPyramid recommendations for children 2-5 y, but was associated with better diet quality in all age groups and should be encouraged in moderation as part of a healthy diet.
    Nutrition Journal 02/2011; 10(1):17. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-10-17 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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