Vaccinia virus subverts a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein-dependent innate immune response in keratinocytes through its double-stranded RNA binding protein, E3.

Department of Medicine, Dermatology Service, Molecular Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.
Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 4.65). 09/2008; 82(21):10735-46. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01305-08
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Skin keratinocytes provide a first line of defense against invading microorganisms in two ways: (i) by acting as a physical barrier to pathogen entry and (ii) by initiating a vigorous innate immune response upon sensing danger signals. How keratinocytes detect virus infections and generate antiviral immune responses is not well understood. Orthopoxviruses are dermatotropic DNA viruses that cause lethal disease in humans. Virulence in animal models depends on the virus-encoded bifunctional Z-DNA/double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding protein E3. Here, we report that infection of mouse primary keratinocytes with a vaccinia DeltaE3L mutant virus triggers the production of beta interferon (IFN-beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), CCL4, and CCL5. None of these immune mediators is produced by keratinocytes infected with wild-type vaccinia virus. The dsRNA-binding domain of E3 suffices to prevent activation of the innate immune response. DeltaE3L induction of IFN-beta, IL-6, CCL4, and CCL5 secretion requires mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS; an adaptor for the cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors RIG-I and MDA5) and the transcription factor IRF3. IRF3 phosphorylation is induced in keratinocytes infected with DeltaE3L, an event that depends on MAVS. The response of keratinocytes to DeltaE3L is unaffected by genetic ablation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), TRIF, TLR9, and MyD88.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are extremely important organelles in the life of a cell. Recent studies indicate that mitochondria also play a fundamental role in the cellular innate immune mechanisms against viral infections. Moreover, mitochondria are able to alter their shape continuously through fusion and fission. These tightly regulated processes are activated or inhibited under physiological or pathological (e.g. viral infection) conditions to help restore homeostasis. However, many types of viruses, such as orthopoxviruses, have developed various strategies to evade the mitochondrial-mediated antiviral innate immune responses. Moreover, orthopoxviruses exploit the mitochondria for their survival. Such viral activity has been reported during vaccinia virus (VACV) infection. Our study shows that the Moscow strain of ectromelia virus (ECTV-MOS), an orthopoxvirus, alters the mitochondrial network in permissive L929 cells. Upon infection, the branching structure of the mitochondrial network collapses and becomes disorganized followed by destruction of mitochondrial tubules during the late stage of infection. Small, discrete mitochondria co-localize with progeny virions, close to the cell membrane. Furthermore, clustering of mitochondria is observed around viral factories, particularly between the nucleus and viroplasm. Our findings suggest that ECTV-MOS modulates mitochondrial cellular distribution during later stages of the replication cycle, probably enabling viral replication and/or assembly as well as transport of progeny virions inside the cell. However, this requires further investigation.
    Acta biochimica Polonica 03/2014; · 1.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated poxvirus that has been engineered as a vaccine against infectious agents and cancers. Our goal is to understand how MVA modulates innate immunity in dendritic cells (DCs), which can provide insights to vaccine design. In this study, using murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, we assessed type I interferon (IFN) gene induction and protein secretion in response to MVA infection. We report that MVA infection elicits the production of type I IFN in murine conventional dendritic cells (cDCs), but not in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Transcription factors IRF3 (IFN regulatory factor 3) and IRF7, and the positive feedback loop mediated by IFNAR1 (IFN alpha/beta receptor 1), are required for the induction. MVA induction of type I IFN is fully dependent on STING (stimulator of IFN genes) and the newly discovered cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS (cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase). MVA infection of cDCs triggers phosphorylation of TBK1 (Tank-binding kinase 1) and IRF3, which is abolished in the absence of cGAS and STING. Furthermore, intravenous delivery of MVA induces type I IFN in wild-type mice, but not in mice lacking STING or IRF3. Treatment of cDCs with inhibitors of endosomal and lysosomal acidification or the lysosomal enzyme Cathepsin B attenuated MVA-induced type I IFN production, indicating that lysosomal enzymatic processing of virions is important for MVA sensing. Taken together, our results demonstrate a critical role of the cGAS/STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway for type I IFN induction in cDCs by MVA. We present evidence that vaccinia virulence factors E3 and N1 inhibit the activation of IRF3 and the induction of IFNB gene in MVA-infected cDCs.
    PLoS Pathogens 04/2014; 10(4):e1003989. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003989 · 8.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In recent years there has been an acceleration of discovery in the field of innate anti-viral immunity to the point that many of the key events in early virus sensing and the discrete anti-viral responses they trigger have been elucidated in detail. In particular, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect viruses at the plasma membrane, in endosomes, and within the cytosol have been characterized. Upon stimulation by viruses, most of these PRRs trigger signal transduction pathways culminating in NFκB activation. NFκB contributes both to type I interferon induction, and to production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from infected cells. Our understanding of host anti-viral innate immunity has been greatly aided by an appreciation of the ways in which poxviruses have evolved strategies to inhibit both innate sensing and effector responses. A recurring feature of poxviral immunomodulation is the apparent necessity for poxviruses to evolve multiple, non-redundant inhibitors of NFκB activation which often appear to act on the same innate signaling pathway. The reason for such apparent over-targeting of one transcription factor is not clear. Here we describe the current understanding of how host cells sense poxvirus infection to trigger signaling pathways leading to NFκB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine induction, and the ways in which poxviruses have evolved to concisely antagonize these systems.
    Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2014.07.004 · 6.54 Impact Factor


Available from