Abnormal renal scans and decreased early resolution of low grade vesicoureteral reflux.
ABSTRACT Limited studies suggest a relationship between scarring on renal scan and failure to resolve vesicoureteral reflux. We evaluated the impact of abnormal renal scans on early vesicoureteral reflux resolution.
The medical records and renal scans were reviewed of children diagnosed with primary reflux between 1988 and 2004. We defined an abnormal renal scan as renal scarring or relative renal function 40% or less. Reflux resolution was noted 1 and 2 years after diagnosis.
Renal scan data were available on 161 children with vesicoureteral reflux, including 127 girls and 34 boys. Relative renal function was 15% or less in 7 children, 16% to 35% in 14, 36% to 40% in 18 and greater than 40% in 122. Of the 161 patients 79 (43%) had an abnormal renal scan, including 37% with grades 1 to 3 reflux. The rate of 2-year reflux resolution in the abnormal and normal renal scan groups was 13% vs 53%. Of children with grades II and III reflux those with an abnormal renal scan were less likely to have reflux resolution compared to those with normal renal scans (23% vs 55% and 4% vs 41, respectively, p <0.05). The same relationship was present at 1 year for grades 2 and 3 (18% vs 49% and 4% vs 30, respectively, p <0.05).
Abnormal renal scans are an important independent predictor of early failure to resolve vesicoureteral reflux. An abnormal renal scan should be considered when counseling families about the likelihood of early reflux resolution. Performing a renal scan may be indicated in select patients.
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ABSTRACT: We study the ability of dimercapto-succinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy to predict the presence of dilating vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in infants with urinary tract infection (UTI) to simplify the evaluation protocol. A retrospective analysis of the records of 303 children younger than 2 years with initial UTI investigated with DMSA scintigraphy and voiding cystourethrography (VCU) within 3 months after UTI was performed. In 156 of the 303 children (51%) DMSA scintigraphy showed renal lesions. VUR was found in 80 patients (26%) and VUR grade significantly correlated with the presence of renal lesions. A normal DMSA scintigraphy and dilating VUR (grade III) occurred in 7 infants. At followup after 1 to 2 years, 6 of these 7 patients had normal DMSA scans and 1 had a scarred duplex kidney. VUR resolved spontaneously in 5 and improved spontaneously to grade 1 in 2 patients. None of the 7 children had recurrent UTI. DMSA scintigraphy in infants with UTI may replace VCU as a first line investigation. A strategy to perform VCU in only patients with renal lesions is proposed. In this study 147 of 303 VCUs would have been unnecessary as only 1 child with a damaged kidney was missed.The Journal of Urology 10/2004; 172(3):1071-3; discussion 1073-4. · 3.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The management of high grade vesicoureteral reflux remains controversial, with breakthrough infections being an indication for surgical repair. We sought to determine if technetium dimercapto-succinic acid (DMSA) scan could help predict which children are at risk for breakthrough urinary tract infection. A retrospective review was performed on children presenting with a febrile urinary tract infection and prenatal hydronephrosis who were found to have vesicoureteral reflux and underwent a DMSA scan. Reflux was tabulated according to the highest grade. DMSA results were graded as 0-normal, no parenchymal or size defects, grade 1-focal parenchymal defects or less than a quarter of a renal unit involved, or grade 2-severe defects to include at least half of a renal unit, bilateral defects or unilateral atrophy. A total of 120 consecutive patients were evaluated. An abnormal DMSA scan was documented in 57 (33 females and 24 males), and 35 with grade 1 and 22 with grade 2 defects. Of the patients 53 females and 10 males had a normal scan. Of the 57 children with an abnormal DMSA scan 6% presented with grades 1 and 2 vesicoureteral reflux, 24% with grade 3, 38% with grade 4 and 26% with grade 5. Of the children with grades 3 to 5 reflux 60% had a subsequent breakthrough infection. Of the 63 children with a normal DMSA scan 11% presented with grade 1 reflux, 28% with grade 2, 48% with grade 3, 11% with grade 4 and 2% with grade 5. Of these children 5 had a subsequent breakthrough infection. An abnormality on DMSA scan in the presence of grade 3 to 5 reflux correlates with a greater chance of having a breakthrough infection (60%). We conclude that children with grade 3 to 5 vesicoureteral reflux and an abnormal DMSA scan are at increased risk for breakthrough urinary tract infection.The Journal of Urology 10/2004; 172(3):1075-7; discussion 1077. · 3.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Questions regarding the efficacy and safety of long-term prophylactic antibiotics and the option of minimally invasive therapy have increased clinical emphasis on predicting early resolution in patients with vesicoureteral reflux. We reviewed multiple potential prognostic factors in addition to grade to enhance predictive ability regarding early vesicoureteral reflux resolution. Medical records and cystograms from 324 children (257 girls and 67 boys) with primary vesicoureteral reflux were reviewed. Multiple factors were analyzed with respect to outcome and multivariable dependent tables were constructed to enhance the prediction of vesicoureteral reflux resolution. Mean +/- SD age at diagnosis was 2.3 +/- 2.1 years and followup was 1.7 +/- 2.8 years. Reflux grade was significantly associated with resolution (p <0.001). Multivariate analysis stratifying by grade demonstrated that a bladder volume at reflux onset on the initial cystogram of greater than 50% of predicted bladder capacity (p <0.001), age younger than 2 years at diagnosis (p = 0.003) and history of prenatal hydronephrosis (p <0.001) were significant factors predicting resolution within 2 years. Multivariable tables using age, bladder volume at reflux onset and grade demonstrated that children younger than 2 years at diagnosis and volume at onset greater than 50% of predicted bladder capacity had a higher early resolution rate for grades 2 (p = 0.012) and 3 (p <0.001) reflux. Initial reflux grade, bladder volume at reflux onset, age at diagnosis and history of prenatal hydronephrosis were shown to be independent factors affecting the resolution rates of vesicoureteral reflux. The multivariable tables permit improved individualized prediction of resolution in patients with grades 2 and 3 reflux.The Journal of Urology 11/2007; 178(4 Pt 2):1684-8. · 3.70 Impact Factor