Restless Legs Syndrome in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology Tokat, Turkey.
The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques (Impact Factor: 1.53). 08/2008; 35(3):352-7. DOI: 10.1017/S0317167100008957
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the relationship between RLS and clinical/laboratory findings of COPD.
One hundred and thirty-four COPD patients without secondary causes of RLS were included. Thirty-nine (29.1%) patients were diagnosed with RLS and classified as Group 1. The control group consisted of 65 age-matched COPD patients without RLS. Group 1 was divided into subgroups according to the Johns Hopkins Severity (JHS) scale. Patients with a score of 0, 1, or 2 were classified as JHS 0-2 and those with a score of 3 as JHS 3. Group 1 and the control group and subgroups were compared for clinical and laboratory characteristics.
We found that the duration of COPD was longer and that airway obstruction, hypercapnia, and hypoxia were more evident in patients with RLS than those without. Similar differences were also detected between JHS subgroups 3 (more severe) and 0-2. Polyneuropathy frequency was significantly higher in Group 1 compared to controls. However, Group 1 subgroups showed a similar frequency of polyneuropathy. In a multivariate analysis, hypercapnia made a significant independent contribution to both JHS 0-2 and JHS 3 patients when RLS severity was set as the dependent variable. Polyneuropathy and the duration of COPD were significant independent variables for patients in the JHS 3 subgroup. Polyneuropathy was the strongest predictor for the JHS 3 patients.
We conclude that RLS is frequent in COPD, particularly in patients with severe hypoxemia/hypercapnia and in late stages of the disease.

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    • "Also, based on this study, smoking history was not associated with the presence of RLS and was not correlated with RLS symptom severity. In another series of 134 patients and 64 controls, RLS was found in 29% of cases of COPD and was associated with hypoxemia/hypercapnia and later stages of the disease [29]. This study demonstrates that RLS symptom severity is correlated with low ferritin in COPD and this is the first time this association is shown in these patients. "

    American Thoracic Society 2012 International Conference, May 18-23, 2012 • San Francisco, California; 05/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sleep-related movement disorder with a high prevalence in the general population. Patients affected by a severe form of the disorder may develop comorbidities, such as psychological distress, cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases; these patients require pharmacotherapy. Dopamine agonists represent the first line treatment for RLS patients but, if adverse events such as compulsive behaviors and augmentation occur, the pharmacological approach should be modified. Gabapentin is a GABA analogue used in the treatment of seizures and pain syndromes. This drug has an unfavorable pharmacokinetic profile; the prodrug gabapentin enacarbil was developed to overcome this limitation. Unlike oral gabapentin, gabapentin enacarbil shows no evidence of saturation and exposure to gabapentin is dose proportional. The extended release formulation of gabapentin enacarbil has the characteristics of an optimal drug therapy. Doses from 1200 to 1800 mg/day of gabapentin enacarbil appear effective in treating RLS after only a few days of treatment. The most frequently reported adverse events associated with gabapentin enacarbil are dizziness and somnolence, which are transient and of mild intensity. Further studies are required to confirm the long term efficacy and safety of gabapentin enacarbil on the symptoms of RLS.
    Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain: 1998) 01/2010; 46(1):3-11. DOI:10.1358/dot.2010.46.1.1424766 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the prevalence and the association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and a large variety of health variables in two well-characterized random samples from the general population in Reykjavik, Iceland, and Uppsala, Sweden. Using the national registries of inhabitants, a random sample from adults aged 40 and over living in Reykjavík, Iceland (n=939), and Uppsala, Sweden (n=998), were invited to participate in a study on the prevalence of COPD (response rate 81.1% and 62.2%). In addition, the participants were asked to answer the following questionnaires: International RLS Rating Scale, Short Form-12, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and questions about sleep, gastroeosophageal reflux, diabetes and hypertension, as well as pharmacological treatment. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin were measured in serum. RLS was more commonly reported in Reykjavik (18.3%) than in Uppsala (11.5%). Icelandic women reported RLS almost twice as often as Swedish women (24.4 vs. 13.9% p=0.001), but there was no difference in prevalence of RLS between Icelandic and Swedish men. RLS was strongly associated with sleep disturbances and excessive daytime sleepiness. Subjects with RLS were more likely to be ex- and current smokers than subjects without RLS (p<0.001). Respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction were more prevalent among those reporting RLS and they also estimated their physical quality of life lower than those without RLS (p<0.001). RLS was not associated with symptoms of the metabolic syndrome like hypertension, obesity, markers of systemic inflammation (IL-6 and CRP) or cardiovascular diseases. Ferritin levels were significantly lower in RLS participants (p=0.0002), but not (p=0.07) after adjustment for center, age, sex and smoking history. Restless legs syndrome was twice as common among Icelandic women compared to Swedish women. No such difference was seen for men. RLS was strongly associated with smoking and respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, sleep disturbances, excessive daytime sleepiness, and physical aspects of life quality. RLS was not associated with markers of the metabolic syndrome like hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular diseases or biomarkers of systemic inflammation.
    Sleep Medicine 10/2010; 11(10):1043-8. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2010.08.006 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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