Influence of deep breathing exercise on spontaneous respiratory rate and heart rate variability: A randomised controlled trial in healthy subjects
ABSTRACT Studies show that yogic type of breathing exercises reduces the spontaneous respiratory rate. However, there are no conclusive studies on the effects of breathing exercise on heart rate variability. We investigated the effects of non-yogic breathing exercise on respiratory rate and heart rate variability. Healthy subjects (21-33 years, both genders) were randomized into the intervention group (n=18), which performed daily deep breathing exercise at 6 breaths/min (0.1 Hz) for one month, and a control group (n=18) which did not perform any breathing exercise. Baseline respiratory rate and short-term heart rate variability indices were assessed in both groups. Reassessment was done after one month and the change in the parameters from baseline was computed for each group. Comparison of the absolute changes [median (inter-quartile ranges)] of the parameters between the intervention and control group showed a significant difference in the spontaneous respiratory rate [intervention group -2.50 (-4.00, -1.00), control group 0.00 (-1.00, 1.00), cycles/min, P<0.001], mean arterial pressure [intervention group -0.67 (-6.67, 1.33), control group 0.67 (0.00, 6.67), mmHg, (P<0.05)], high frequency power [intervention group 278.50 (17.00, 496.00), control group -1.00 (-341.00, 196.00), ms2 P<0.05] and sum of low and high frequency powers [intervention group 512.00 (-73.00, 999.00), control group 51.00 (-449.00, 324.00), ms2, P<0.05]. Neither the mean of the RR intervals nor the parameters reflecting sympatho-vagal balance were significantly different across the groups. In conclusion, the changes produced by simple deep slow breathing exercise in the respiratory rate and cardiac autonomic modulation of the intervention group were significant, when compared to the changes in the control group. Thus practice of deep slow breathing exercise improves heart rate variability in healthy subjects, without altering their cardiac autonomic balance. These findings have implications in the use of deep breathing exercises to improve cardiac autonomic control in subjects known to have reduced heart rate variability.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: To document and explain Yoga's effects on acupuncture meridian energies. To understand mechanisms behind Yoga's efficacy by testing links between yoga and traditional Chinese medicine. Materials and Methods: The study compared two groups of yoga practitioners: Novice and experienced. Novices consisted of 33 volunteers from a Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (S-VYASA) yoga instructor training module and the experienced practitioners were 20 resident SVYASA students. The intervention was 3 weeks of a yoga training program, new for the novices, but the lifestyle of the experienced group, who were therefore assessed only once. Novices were assessed on day 2 and 23 of their program at SVYASA's Yoga Medicine Hospital, making their data a pre-post, self-as-control, prospective study. Main outcome measures were mean acumeridian energy levels assessed by AcuGraph3 measures of electrodermal resistance at acupoints; additionally, gender differences, standard deviations (SDs) of all measures, and comparison of post and experienced group data. Results: Averaged energy levels significantly improved in all 24 meridians (maximum P = 0.032, 4-P < 0.01, and 19-P < 0.001). Females improved more than males (P < 0.05), both ending at similar levels to experienced practitioners, whose SDs were lower than novices on 19/24 meridians (mean F = 3.715, P = 0.0022), and 4/5 average variables. Conclusions: AcuGraph3 electrodermal measures contain substantial information, P << 0.00001. Yoga-lifestyle practice can increase and balance acumeridian energies; long-term practice decreases group SD's. These three suggest reasons why yoga practice impacts health: One, increased prana levels are important; two and three, improved physiological regulation is the key. Further studies relating traditional Indian and Chinese medical systems are needed.International Journal of Yoga 01/2014; 7(1):32-40. DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.123477
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ABSTRACT: A minority of individuals will continue to experience debilitating symptoms for more than several months after sustaining a concussion. These problems may have multiple causes, including persistence of the original concussion symptoms, but they also may be due to factors such as depression and anxiety, physical problems, and psychological issues (including coping with an adverse insurance and legal system). This article reviews the differential diagnosis and treatment strategies for patients with chronic symptoms that persist after a concussion.The Psychiatric clinics of North America 03/2014; 37(1):91-102. DOI:10.1016/j.psc.2013.11.001 · 1.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Functional somatic symptoms signal distress and reflect an activation of the body's stress-regulation systems. Many different types of stressors – physical, emotional or both – may activate the body's stress-regulation systems. If stress-related disruptions are extreme or are not limited in time, functional somatic symptoms may emerge, signalling that the body remains in a state of activation and somatic distress. In this paper, we describe the development of therapeutic fact sheets, which are used as part of our multimodal, family-based, rehabilitation intervention for children and adolescents presenting with functional somatic symptoms. The fact sheets provide information about functional somatic symptoms – including their assessment and treatment – from a stress-system framework. They are used in the context of a family intervention to facilitate engagement with the family and to reduce parental anxiety and reactivity. Whilst the fact sheets were initially developed for parents, over time we found that the sheets were also useful in managing anxiety in the medical and school systems. A key goal of this article is to share this resource with other clinicians working with children/adolescents with functional somatic symptoms.09/2014; 35(3). DOI:10.1002/anzf.1059