Article

Effects of Late-Cenozoic Glaciation on Habitat Availability in Antarctic Benthic Shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea)

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 09/2012; 7(9):e46283. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046283
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Marine invertebrates inhabiting the high Antarctic continental shelves are challenged by disturbance of the seafloor by grounded ice, low but stable water temperatures and variable food availability in response to seasonal sea-ice cover. Though a high diversity of life has successfully adapted to such conditions, it is generally agreed that during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the large-scale cover of the Southern Ocean by multi-annual sea ice and the advance of the continental ice sheets across the shelf faced life with conditions, exceeding those seen today by an order of magnitude. Conditions prevailing at the LGM may have therefore acted as a bottleneck event to both the ecology as well as genetic diversity of today's fauna. Here, we use for the first time specific Species Distribution Models (SDMs) for marine arthropods of the Southern Ocean to assess effects of habitat contraction during the LGM on the three most common benthic caridean shrimp species that exhibit a strong depth zonation on the Antarctic continental shelf. While the shallow-water species Chorismus antarcticus and Notocrangon antarcticus were limited to a drastically reduced habitat during the LGM, the deep-water shrimp Nematocarcinus lanceopes found refuge in the Southern Ocean deep sea. The modeling results are in accordance with genetic diversity patterns available for C. antarcticus and N. lanceopes and support the hypothesis that habitat contraction at the LGM resulted in a loss of genetic diversity in shallow water benthos.

0 Followers
 · 
194 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although decapod crustaceans are widespread in the oceans, only Natantia (shrimps) are common in the Antarctic. Because remoteness, depth and ice cover restrict sampling in the South Ocean, species distribution modelling is a useful tool for evaluating distributions. We used physical specimen and towed camera data to describe the diversity and distribution of shrimps in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica. Eight shrimp species were recorded: Chorismus antarcticus; Notocrangon antarcticus; Nematocarcinus lanceopes; Dendrobranchiata; Pasiphaea scotiae; Pasiphaea cf. ledoyeri; Petalidium sp., and a new species of Lebbeus. For the two most common species, N. antarcticus and N. lanceopes, we used maximum entropy modelling, based on records of 60 specimens and over 1130 observations across 23 sites in depths from 269 m to 3433 m, to predict distributions in relation to environmental variables. Two independent sets of environmental data layers at 0.05° and 0.5° resolution respectively, showed how spatial resolution affected the model. Chorismus antarcticus and N. antarcticus were found only on the continental shelf and upper slopes, while N. lanceopes, Lebbeus n. sp., Dendrobranchiata, Petalidium sp., Pasiphaea cf. ledoyeri, and Pasiphaea scotiae were found on the slopes, seamounts and abyssal plain. The environmental variables that contributed most to models for N. antarcticus were depth, chlorophyll-a concentration, temperature, and salinity, and for N. lanceopes were depth, ice concentration, seabed slope/rugosity, and temperature. The relative ranking, but not the composition of these variables changed in models using different spatial resolutions, and the predicted extent of suitable habitat was smaller in models using the finer-scale environmental layers. Our modelling indicated that shrimps were widespread throughout the Ross Sea region and were thus likely to play important functional role in the ecosystem, and that the spatial resolution of data needs to be considered both in the use of species distribution models.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e103195. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103195 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Quaternary glaciations in Antarctica drastically modified geographical ranges and population sizes of marine benthic invertebrates and thus affected the amount and distribution of intraspecific genetic variation. Here, we present new genetic information in the Antarctic limpet Nacella concinna, a dominant Antarctic benthic species along shallow ice-free rocky ecosystems. We examined the patterns of genetic diversity and structure in this broadcast spawner along maritime Antarctica and from the peri-Antarctic island of South Georgia. Genetic analyses showed that N. concinna represents a single panmictic unit in maritime Antarctic. Low levels of genetic diversity characterized this population; its median-joining haplotype network revealed a typical star-like topology with a short genealogy and a dominant haplotype broadly distributed. As previously reported with nuclear markers, we detected significant genetic differentiation between South Georgia Island and maritime Antarctica populations. Higher levels of genetic diversity, a more expanded genealogy and the presence of more private haplotypes support the hypothesis of glacial persistence in this peri-Antarctic island. Bayesian Skyline plot and mismatch distribution analyses recognized an older demographic history in South Georgia. Approximate Bayesian computations did not support the persistence of N. concinna along maritime Antarctica during the last glacial period, but indicated the resilience of the species in peri-Antarctic refugia (South Georgia Island). We proposed a model of Quaternary Biogeography for Antarctic marine benthic invertebrates with shallow and narrow bathymetric ranges including (i) extinction of maritime Antarctic populations during glacial periods; (ii) persistence of populations in peri-Antarctic refugia; and (iii) recolonization of maritime Antarctica following the deglaciation process.
    Molecular Ecology 09/2013; DOI:10.1111/mec.12465 · 5.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dispersal via pelagic larval stages plays a key role in population connectivity of many marine species. The degree of connectivity is often correlated with the time that larvae spend in the water column. The Antarctic notothenioid fishes develop through an unusually long pelagic larval phase often exceeding 1 year. Notothenioids thus represent a prime model system for studying the influence of prolonged larval phases on population structure in otherwise demersal species. Here, we compare the population genetic structure and demographic history of two sub-Antarctic crocodile icefish species (Chaenocephalus aceratus and Champsocephalus gunnari) from the Scotia Arc and Bouvet Island in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean to delineate the relative importance of species-specific, oceanographic and paleoclimatic factors to gene flow. Based on 7 (C. aceratus) and 8 (C. gunnari) microsatellites, as well as two mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome b, D-loop), we detect pronounced population genetic structure in both species (amova FSTs range from 0.04 to 0.53). High genetic similarities were found concordantly in the populations sampled at the Southern Scotia Arc between Elephant Island and South Orkney Islands, whereas the populations from Bouvet Island, which is located far to the east of the Scotia Arc, are substantially differentiated from those of the Scotia Arc region. Nonetheless, haplotype genealogies and Bayesian cluster analyses suggest occasional gene flow over thousands of kilometres. Higher divergences between populations of C. gunnari as compared to C. aceratus are probably caused by lower dispersal capabilities and demographic effects. Bayesian skyline plots reveal population size reductions during past glacial events in both species with an estimated onset of population expansions about 25 000 years ago.
    Molecular Ecology 12/2013; 23(2). DOI:10.1111/mec.12612 · 5.84 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
57 Downloads
Available from
May 31, 2014