Prospective comparison of sorafenib and sunitinib for second-line treatment of cytokine-refractory kidney cancer patients.
ABSTRACT It was the aim of this study to investigate the clinical differences between the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) sorafenib and sunitinib as second-line treatment for cytokine-refractory kidney cancer patients.
Twenty consecutive patients received continuous treatment of oral sorafenib at a dose of 400 mg twice daily in 6-week cycles. Sunitinib was administered to the remaining 20 patients at 50 mg once daily in repeated 6-week cycles consisting of daily therapy for 4 weeks, followed by a 2-week off-treatment period. We correlated best treatment responses and progression-free survival (PFS) with either TKI treatment. Adverse events were evaluated and differences were compared between both treatment groups.
In the sorafenib group, 2 (10%) patients showed a partial response (PR) and 4 (20%) patients had progressive disease (PD) versus 6 (30%) PRs and 3 (15%) PDs in the sunitinib group, respectively (p = 0.195). The median PFS was 6.4 months for sorafenib and 7.4 months for sunitinib (p = 0.969). In contrast to gender, age and the number of prior cytokine therapy cycles, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (p = 0.024) and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center risk groups for second-line treatments (p = 0.015) were independent predictive parameters of PFS. Gastrointestinal symptoms were found to occur with greater frequency in the sunitinib group (p = 0.03).
Both TKIs showed comparable clinical benefits. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center risk groups can help determine which patients might benefit from alternative drug treatments.
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ABSTRACT: Current treatment options for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are limited and there is a need to identify novel and effective therapies. Sunitinib malate is an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which has shown activity in an initial study of cytokine-refractory metastatic RCC patients. To confirm the antitumor efficacy of sunitinib as second-line treatment in patients with metastatic clear-cell RCC, the predominant cell type of this malignancy. Open-label, single-arm, multicenter clinical trial. Patients were enrolled between February and November 2004, with follow-up continuing until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent. The reported data apply through August 2005. Patients (N = 106) had metastatic clear-cell RCC, which had progressed despite previous cytokine therapy. Repeated 6-week cycles of sunitinib, 50 mg per day given orally for 4 consecutive weeks followed by 2 weeks off per treatment cycle. Assessment of clinical response, degree of tumor regression on imaging studies using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guidelines. Primary end point was overall objective response rate (complete plus partial). Secondary end points were progression-free survival and safety. Response was evaluated by independent third-party core imaging laboratory and by treating physicians (investigator assessment). All 106 patients received sunitinib and were included in the intent-to-treat population for safety analyses. Of these, 105 patients were evaluable for efficacy analyses. The objective response rate according to an independent third-party assessment resulted in 36 patients with partial response (34%; 95% confidence interval, 25%-44%), and a median progression-free survival of 8.3 months (95% confidence interval, 7.8-14.5 months). The most common adverse events experienced by patients were fatigue in 30 (28%) and diarrhea 21 (20%). Neutropenia, elevation of lipase, and anemia were the most common laboratory abnormalities observed in 45 (42%), 30 (28%), and 27 (26%) patients, respectively. The results of this trial demonstrate the efficacy and manageable adverse-event profile of sunitinib as a single agent in second-line therapy for patients with cytokine-refractory metastatic clear-cell RCC. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00077974.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/2006; 295(21):2516-24. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by loss of von Hippel Lindau tumor suppressor gene activity, resulting in high expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). SU11248 (sunitinib malate), a small molecule inhibitor with high binding affinity for VEGF and PDGF receptors, was tested for clinical activity in patients with metastatic RCC. Patients with metastatic RCC and progression on first-line cytokine therapy were enrolled onto a multicenter phase II trial. SU11248 monotherapy was administered in repeated 6-week cycles of daily oral therapy for 4 weeks, followed by 2 weeks off. Overall response rate was the primary end point, and time to progression and safety were secondary end points. Results Twenty-five (40%) of 63 patients treated with SU11248 achieved partial responses; 17 additional patients (27%) demonstrated stable disease lasting > or = 3 months. Median time to progression in the 63 patients was 8.7 months. Dosing was generally tolerated with manageable toxicities. SU11248, a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of VEGF and PDGF receptors, demonstrates antitumor activity in metastatic RCC as second-line therapy, a setting where no effective systemic therapy is presently recognized. The genetics of RCC and these promising clinical results support the hypothesis that VEGF and PDGF receptor-mediated signaling is an effective therapeutic target in RCC.Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2006; 24(1):16-24. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of multiple doses of CCI-779, a novel mammalian target of rapamycin kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced refractory renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Patients (n = 111) were randomly assigned to receive 25, 75, or 250 mg CCI-779 weekly as a 30-minute intravenous infusion. Patients were evaluated for tumor response, time to tumor progression, survival, and adverse events. Blood samples were collected to determine CCI-779 pharmacokinetics. CCI-779 produced an objective response rate of 7% (one complete response and seven partial responses) and minor responses in 26% of these advanced RCC patients. Median time to tumor progression was 5.8 months and median survival was 15.0 months. The most frequently occurring CCI-779-related adverse events of all grades were maculopapular rash (76%), mucositis (70%), asthenia (50%), and nausea (43%). The most frequently occurring grade 3 or 4 adverse events were hyperglycemia (17%), hypophosphatemia (13%), anemia (9%), and hypertriglyceridemia (6%). Neither toxicity nor efficacy was significantly influenced by CCI-779 dose level. Patients were retrospectively classified into good-, intermediate-, or poor-risk groups on the basis of criteria used by Motzer et al for a first-line metastatic RCC population treated with interferon alfa. Within each risk group, the median survivals of patients at each dose level were similar. In patients with advanced RCC, CCI-779 showed antitumor activity and encouraging survival and was generally well tolerated over the three dose levels tested.Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2004; 22(5):909-18. · 18.04 Impact Factor