Methods for Describing the Electromagnetic Properties of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles

Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113.
Accounts of Chemical Research (Impact Factor: 24.35). 09/2008; 41(12):1710-20. DOI: 10.1021/ar800028j
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This Account provides an overview of the methods that are currently being used to study the electromagnetics of silver and gold nanoparticles, with an emphasis on the determination of extinction and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra. These methods have proven to be immensely useful in recent years for interpreting a wide range of nanoscience experiments and providing the capability to describe optical properties of particles up to several hundred nanometers in dimension, including arbitrary particle structures and complex dielectric environments (adsorbed layers of molecules, nearby metal films, and other particles). While some of the methods date back to Mie's celebrated work a century ago, others are still at the forefront of algorithm development in computational electromagnetics. This Account gives a qualitative description of the physical and mathematical basis behind the most commonly used methods, including both analytical and numerical methods, as well as representative results of applications that are relevant to current experiments. The analytical methods that we discuss are either derived from Mie theory for spheres or from the quasistatic (Gans) model as applied to spheres and spheroids. In this discussion, we describe the use of Mie theory to determine electromagnetic contributions to SERS enhancements that include for retarded dipole emission effects, and the use of the quasistatic approximation for spheroidal particles interacting with dye adsorbate layers. The numerical methods include the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, and the finite element method (FEM) based on Whitney forms. We discuss applications such as using DDA to describe the interaction of two gold disks to define electromagnetic hot spots, FDTD for light interacting with metal wires that go from particle-like plasmonic response to the film-like transmission as wire dimension is varied, and FEM studies of electromagnetic fields near cubic particles.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, by utilizing a two-step route of electrospinning and polyol immersion, in the absence of any surfactant or sensitizing and stabilizing reagent, a well-distributed assembly of Ag NPs on the electrospun polyurethane (PU) nanofibers was successfully fabricated through a simple and controllable manner. Based on the FE-SEM, XRD and FT-IR analyses, the polyol medium plays an important role in the growth of highly monodispersed Ag NPs, wherein the hydroxyl group of ethylene glycol (EG) can be bridged to the amide group on the surface of the PU nanofibers through intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Fabrication of a polymer fibrous membrane effectively attached/decorated with noble metal NPs, which is essential as flexible and high efficiency substrates for SERS application where the molecule analytes are directly adsorbed on their surfaces is important, could be realized by the present electrospun PU-Ag(EG) nanofibers, employing 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) as probe molecules.
    Applied Surface Science 07/2014; 308:396-401. DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.04.188 · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Molecule-coated nanoparticles are hybrid materials which can be engineered with novel properties. The molecular coating of metal nanoparticles can provide chemical functionality, enabling assembly of the nanoparticles that are important for applications, such as biosensing devices. Herein, we report a new self-assembly of core-satellite gold nanoparticles linked by a simple amino acid l-Cysteine for biosensing of Cu(2+). The plasmonic properties of core-satellite nano-assemblies were investigated, a new red shifted absorbance peak from about 600 to 800nm was found, with specific wavelength depending on ratios with assembly of large and small gold nanoparticles. The spectral features obtained using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) provided strong evidence for the assembly of the Cu(2+) ions to the L-Cysteine molecules leading to the successful formation of the core-satellite Cu(l-Cysteine) complex on the gold surfaces. In addition, a linear relationship between the concentration of mediating Cu(2+) and absorbance of self-assembled gold nanoparticles (GNPs) at 680nm was obtained. These results strongly address the potential strategy for applying the functionalized GNPs as novel biosensing tools in trace detections of certain metal ions.
    Analytica chimica acta 11/2013; 803:128-34. DOI:10.1016/j.aca.2013.09.036 · 4.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a key metabolite in cellular energy conversion. Flavin can also bind with some enzymes in the metabolic pathway and the binding sites may be changed due to the disease progression. Thus, there is interest on studying its expression level, distribution, and redox state within the cells. FAD is naturally fluorescent, but it has a modest extinction coefficient and quantum yield. Hence the intrinsic emission from FAD is generally too weak to be isolated distinctly from the cellular backgrounds in fluorescence cell imaging. In this article, the metal nanostructures on the glass coverslips were used as substrates to measure FAD in cells. Particulate silver films were fabricated with an optical resonance near the absorption and the emission wavelengths of FAD which can lead to efficient coupling interactions. As a result, the emission intensity and quantum yield by FAD were greatly increased and the lifetime was dramatically shortened resulting in less interference from the longer lived cellular background. This feature may overcome the technical limits that hinder the direct observation of intrinsically fluorescent coenzymes in the cells by fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence cell imaging on the metallic particle substrates may provide a non-invasive strategy for collecting the information of coenzymes in cells.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2012; 425(3):696-700. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.06.058 · 2.28 Impact Factor