Self-reported visual impairment in elderly Canadians and its impact on healthy living
ABSTRACT Using a nationwide sample from community- and institution-dwelling residents, we describe the prevalence of self-reported visual impairment in elderly Canadians and examine its association with selected social demographics and health factors.
Subjects were participants in the phase I clinical examination of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Vision state was ascertained from a self-reported question: "How is your eyesight (with glasses or contacts if you wear them)?" A response of "poor" (referred to as poor vision) or "unable to see" (referred to as blindness) was considered visual impairment. Other information was from in-person interviews or clinical examinations. Standardized weights were used in all analyses.
Analyses included 2671 participants with a median age of 72 years. The overall prevalence was 6.2% for poor vision, 0.7% for blindness, and 6.8% for either. A higher prevalence was seen in women and in people aged 85 years or older. Participants with < or = 6 years of education were approximately 2 times more likely to report visual impairment. Institutional residents and people with falls or a depressed mood were approximately 3 times more likely to state visual impairment. Smoking was associated with approximately 4 times higher odds of visual impairment, while persons presenting difficulty with everyday activities or with self-rated poor health were approximately 7 and 15 times more likely to report visual impairment.
Visual impairment in elderly Canadians is common and is associated with increased odds of institutionalization, frequent falls, difficulty with everyday activities, and poor health. Good eyesight may imply good health and good independence in the elderly.
SourceAvailable from: Ya-Ping Jin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose:To determine the impact of lack of government insured routine eye examinations on the incidence of self-reported glaucoma, cataracts and vision loss. Methods:We analyzed data from the Canadian longitudinal National Population Health Survey (1994-2011). White respondents aged 65+ in 1994/1995 were included (n=2618). Three cohorts were established at baseline: those free of glaucoma, cataracts and vision loss (i.e. unable to see close or distance when wearing glasses or contact lenses). Incident cases were identified through self-reporting of these conditions during the follow-up period. Results:The incidence (per 1000 person-years) of glaucoma was lower in uninsured provinces (8.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.5-10.7) than in insured provinces (12.8, 95% CI 10.5-15.1). The incidence of cataracts was also lower in the uninsured (67.2, 95% CI 55.7-78.6) versus insured provinces (75.7, 95% CI 69.2-82.2). The incidence of vision loss was higher in the uninsured (26.6, 95% CI 20.2-33.0) versus insured provinces (22.5, 95% CI 20.0-25.5). Adjusting for confounders, seniors in insured provinces had a 59% increased risk of glaucoma (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.59; 95% CI 1.07-2.37), a 13% greater risk of cataracts (IRR 1.13, 95% CI 0.93-1.37) and a 12% reduced risk of vision loss (IRR 0.88, 95% CI 0.67-1.16). Conclusions:Lack of government-funded routine eye examinations is associated with a reduced incidence of self-reported glaucoma and cataracts, likely due to reduced detection. Lack of insurance is also associated with a higher incidence of self-reported vision loss, likely due to poorer access to eye care and late treatment. Copyright © 2014 by Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 12/2014; 55(12). DOI:10.1167/iovs.14-15361 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective was to evaluate the eye care services offered to older residents living in long-term care facilities (LTCFs).09/2014; 17(3):108-13. DOI:10.5770/cgj.17.116