Cl- -channel is essential for LDL-induced cell proliferation via the activation of Erk1/2 and PI3k/Akt and the upregulation of Egr-1 in human aortic smooth muscle cells.
ABSTRACT Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induces cell proliferation in human aortic smooth muscle cells (hAoSMCs), which may be involved in atherogenesis and intimal hyperplasia. Recent studies have demonstrated that Cl- channels are related to vessel cell proliferation induced by a variety of stimuli. In this study, we investigated a potential role of Cl-channels in the signaling pathway of LDL effects on hAoSMC proliferation with a focus on the activation of Erk1/2-PI3K/Akt and the subsequent upregulation of Egr-1. Cl- channel blockers, DIDS, but neither NPPB nor Furosemide, completely abolished the LDL-induced DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Moreover, DIDS, but not NPPB, significantly decreased LDL-stimulated Cl- concentration, as judged by flow cytometry analysis using MQAE as a Cl- -detection dye. DIDS pretreatment completely abolished the activation of Erk1/2 and PI3K/Akt in a dose-dependent manner that is the hallmark of LDL activation, as judged by Western blot and proliferation assays. Moreover, pretreatment with DIDS (Cl- channel blockers) but not LY294002 (PI3K inhibitors) completely abolished the LDL-induced upregulation of Egr-1 to the same extent as PD98059 (MEK inhibitors to inhibit Erk), as judged by Western blot and luciferase reporter assays. This is the first report, to our knowledge, that DIDS-sensitive Cl- channels play a key role in the LDL-induced cell proliferation of hAoSMCs via the activation of Erk1/2 and PI3K/Akt and the upregulation of Egr-1.
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ABSTRACT: CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein and can facilitate signal transduction by serving as a platform for molecular recruitment and assembly. A number of studies have suggested that CD44 can either positively or negatively regulate cell proliferation. The purpose of this study was to investigate how CD44 can inhibit cell proliferation. We engineered E6.1 Jurkat cells to express CD44. Importantly, these cells lack endogenous CD44 expression. Molecular pathways involved with cell proliferation were studied using RT(2)-PCR array, siRNA, Western blotting and by employing pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2, p38 and the PI3K/Akt pathways. We found that CD44 expression significantly inhibited cell proliferation and down-regulated EGR-1 expression and EGR-1 targets cyclin D1 and cyclin D2. Transfection of control E6.1 Jurkat cells with EGR-1 siRNA also inhibited cell proliferation, confirming its role. Disruption of the PI3K/Akt pathway with pharmacological inhibitors reduced both EGR-1 expression and cell proliferation, recapitulating the properties of CD44 expressing cells. Akt was hypophosphorylated in cells expressing CD44 showing its potential role in negatively regulating Akt activation. Strikingly, constitutively active Akt rescued the proliferation defect showing requirement for active Akt, in our system. Our results suggest a novel pathway by which CD44 inactivates Akt, down-regulates EGR-1 expression and inhibits cell proliferation.Cell Proliferation 08/2010; 43(4):385-95. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Drugs exert desired and undesired effects based on their binding interactions with protein target(s) and off-target(s), providing evidence for drug efficacy and toxicity. Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone possess a common functional core, glitazone, which is considered a privileged scaffold upon which to build a drug selective for a given target-in this case, PPARγ. Herein, we report a retrospective analysis of two variants of the glitazone scaffold, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, in an effort to identify off-target binding events in the rat heart to explain recently reported cardiovascular risk associated with these drugs. Our results suggest that glitazone has affinity for dehydrogenases, consistent with known binding preferences for related rhodanine cores. Both drugs bound ion channels and modulators, with implications in congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, and peripheral edema. Additional proteins involved in glucose homeostasis, synaptic transduction, and mitochondrial energy production were detected and potentially contribute to drug efficacy and cardiotoxicity.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2012; 55(19):8260-71. · 5.48 Impact Factor