Alcohol and breast cancer risk defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status: a case-control study.
ABSTRACT Alcohol consumption increases breast cancer risk. Some studies suggested that this association is stronger or limited to tumors expressing estrogen receptors (ER).
We investigated the role of alcohol according to ER and progesterone receptor (PR) status in a case-control study on breast cancer conducted from 1991 to 1994 in three Italian areas. Cases were 989 women with incident, histologically confirmed breast cancer. Controls were 1,350 women admitted to hospitals in the same catchment areas for acute nonneoplastic diseases. A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on dietary habits and lifetime consumption of various alcoholic beverages. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (95% CI).
Alcohol drinking was associated with ER+ tumors (odds ratio, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.68-2.76 for an intake of > or =13.8 g/d as compared with nondrinkers). The odds ratio was 1.13 (95% CI, 1.07-1.20) for a 10-g increase in daily intake. For ER- tumors, the relation with alcohol consumption was not significant (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.93-2.01). When breast cancers were further classified according to PR, the findings for ER+PR+ cancers were similar to those for all ER+ ones, with an odds ratio of 2.34 (95% CI, 1.81-3.04) for an intake of > or =13.8 g/d. No significant association emerged for ER-PR- tumors (odds ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.81-1.94).
This study supports the hypothesis that alcohol is more strongly related to ER+ than to ER- breast tumors.
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ABSTRACT: This review aimed to investigate risk and protective factors for breast cancer and to analyze whether scientific evidence from the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research, published in 2007, was confirmed by new research. In May 2010 we reviewed cohort and case-control analytical studies from 2007 to 2010 in the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases. We selected 27 articles (14 case-control and 13 cohort studies). Breastfeeding and physical activity were protective factors against breast cancer, and alcohol consumption was a risk factor. A direct proportional relationship was observed between larger waist circumference, weight throughout adulthood, and height and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The association between body fat and breast cancer is contradictory in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. According to the accumulated evidence, breastfeeding and healthy lifestyle are the factors most strongly associated with breast cancer prevention.Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública 07/2011; 27(7):1259-70. · 0.83 Impact Factor