Serum organochlorine pesticide residues and risk of testicular germ cell carcinoma: A population-based case-control study

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Box 354922, Seattle, WA 98195-4922, USA.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.32). 08/2008; 17(8):2012-8. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0032
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Testicular germ cell carcinoma (TGCC) is the most common malignancy among men ages 20 to 34 years. Although the pathogenesis of TGCC is poorly understood, suboptimal androgen levels or impaired androgen signaling may play a role. Some persistent organochlorine pesticides commonly found in human tissue possess antiandrogenic properties. We examined whether the risk of TGCC is associated with serum levels of 11 organochlorine pesticides, including p,p'-DDE, and whether the p,p'-DDE-TGCC association is modified by CAG or GGN repeat polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene. We conducted a population-based case-control study among 18- to 44-year-old male residents of three Washington State counties. Cases (n = 246) were diagnosed during 1999 to 2003 with a first, primary TGCC. Controls (n = 630) were men of similar age with no history of TGCC from the same population identified through random-digit telephone dialing. Questionnaires elicited information on demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. A blood specimen provided serum for gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues and DNA for genotyping. We observed no clear patterns between TGCC risk and concentrations of any of the organochlorines measured, nor did we observe that the risk associated with p,p'-DDE was modified by androgen receptor CAG (<23 versus > or =23 repeats) or GGN (<17 versus > or =17 repeats) genotype. This study does not provide support for the hypothesis that adult exposure to organochlorine pesticides is associated with risk of TGCC. Due to uncertainty regarding how well organochlorine levels measured in adulthood reflect exposures during early life, further research is needed using exposure measurements collected in utero or during infancy.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are the most common cancers in men aged between 15 and 44 years and the incidence has increased steeply over the past 30 years. The rapid increase in the incidence, the spatial variation and the evolution of incidence in migrants suggest that environmental risk factors play a role in TGCT aetiology. The purpose of our review is to summarise the current state of knowledge on occupational and environmental factors thought to be associated with TGCT. A systematic literature search of PubMed. All selected articles were quality appraised by two independent researchers using the 'Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale'. After exclusion of duplicate reports, 72 relevant articles were selected; 65 assessed exposure in adulthood, 7 assessed parental exposures and 2 assessed both. Associations with occupation was reported for agricultural workers, construction workers, firemen, policemen, military personnel, as well as workers in paper, plastic or metal industries. Electromagnetic fields, PCBs and pesticides were also suggested. However, results were inconsistent and studies showing positive associations tended to had lower quality ranking using the assessment scale (p=0.02). Current evidence does not allow concluding on existence of any clear association between TGCT and adulthood occupational or environmental exposure. The limitations of the studies may partly explain the inconsistencies observed. The lack of association with adulthood exposure is in line with current hypotheses supporting the prenatal origin of TGCT. Future research should focus on prenatal or early life exposure, as well as combined effect of prenatal and later life exposure. National and international collaborative studies should allow for more adequately powered epidemiological studies. More sophisticated methods for assessing exposure as well as evaluating gene-environment interactions will be necessary to establish clear conclusion.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e77130. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077130 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can interfere with normal hormonal balance and may exert adverse consequences on humans. The male reproductive system may be susceptible to the effects of such environmental toxicants. This review discusses the recent progress in scientific data mainly from epidemiology studies on the associations between EDCs and male reproductive health and our understanding of possible mechanisms associated with the effects of EDCs on male reproductive health. Finally, the review provides recommendations on future research to enhance our understanding of EDCs and male reproductive health. The review highlights the need for (1) well-defined longitudinal epidemiology studies, with appropriately designed exposure assessment to determine potential causal relationships; (2) chemical and biochemical approaches aimed at a better understanding of the mechanism of action of xenoestrogens with regard to low-dose effects, and assessment of identify genetic susceptibility factors associated with the risk of adverse effects following exposure to EDCs.
    Frontiers in Public Health 06/2014; 2:55. DOI:10.3389/fpubh.2014.00055
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) represent the most frequent cancer in men aged between 15 and 45 years. Current hypotheses are focusing on environmental exposures occurring during prenatal periods. However, very few studies have explored intra-uterine environmental exposure related to TGCT. TESTEPERA is a pilot case-control study aiming to determine the effectiveness of different recruitment approaches in the French context and to verify our ability to collect relevant data on their prenatal periods. Between 2011 and 2012, 150 male subjects were contacted in the Rhône-Alpes region (58 cases from a cancer center and 92 controls from a regional maternity). Participation rate varied from 33% for cases diagnosed in 2008 vs 68% for cases diagnosed in 2010. Participation rate of controls varied depending on modalities of contact (13% for face-to-face recruitment; 0% for contact by phone only; 50% for face-to-face contact with phone reminder). Data collection allowed precise job identification and geolocation of subjects' addresses. Precision of geolocation was dependent upon the level of urbanization (p < 0.001) but not on the time period (p = 0.52). Our results support the feasibility of a case-control study focusing on the relation between TGCT and environmental pesticide exposures during early and later life.
    Bulletin du cancer 03/2014; 101(3):225-235. DOI:10.1684/bdc.2014.1901 · 0.61 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 28, 2014