Article

The functional impact of subsyndromal depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder: data from STEP-BD.

Mood Disorders Center, Menninger Department of Psychiatry, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States.
Journal of Affective Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.71). 09/2008; 114(1-3):58-67. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2008.07.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This report describes baseline characteristics and functional outcomes of subjects who have prospectively observed subsyndromal symptoms after a major depressive episode (MDE).
All subjects were participants in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). We identified subjects with at least 2 years of observation whose prior or current episode was a MDE, and who were in a stable clinical state of either recovered (no more than 2 moderate symptoms for at least 8 weeks), a MDE by DSM-IV criteria, or with continued subsyndromal symptoms. The subsyndromal group was defined a priori as 3 or more moderate affective symptoms but without meeting diagnostic criteria for major depression.
The final cohort included 1094 recovered, 112 subsyndromal, and 310 individuals in a MDE. The average time spent in each clinical status ranged from 120 to 132 days. The subsyndromal group was most similar to those in a MDE, differing only on the intensity of depressive symptoms and the number of work days missed due to ongoing symptoms. Reported sadness, inability to feel and lassitude were each associated with multiple measures of impairment.
This study is limited by the cross-sectional approach to defining outcomes.
These findings are consistent with studies in unipolar major depression that indicate that functional impairment observed in the context of subsyndromal depressive symptoms is comparable to that of a full episode. This work underscores the need to include subsyndromal symptoms in study outcomes and to target full remission in clinical practice.

0 Followers
 · 
93 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective This randomized, controlled clinical trial compared the effect of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) to that of specialist supportive care (SSC) on depressive outcomes (primary), social functioning, and mania outcomes over 26–78 weeks in young people with bipolar disorder receiving psychopharmacological treatment.Methods Subjects were aged 15–36 years, recruited from a range of sources, and the patient groups included bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Exclusion criteria were minimal. Outcome measures were the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation and the Social Adjustment Scale. Paired-sample t-tests were used to determine the significance of change from baseline to outcome period. Analyses of covariance were used to determine the impact of therapy, impact of lifetime and current comorbidity, interaction between comorbidity and therapy, and impact of age at study entry on depression.ResultsA group of 100 participants were randomized to IPSRT (n = 49) or SSC (n = 51). The majority had bipolar I disorder (78%) and were female (76%), with high levels of comorbidity. After treatment, both groups had improved depressive symptoms, social functioning, and manic symptoms. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant difference between therapies. There was no impact of lifetime or current Axis I comorbidity or age at study entry. There was a relative impact of SSC for patients with current substance use disorder.ConclusionsIPSRT and SSC used as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy appear to be effective in reducing depressive and manic symptoms and improving social functioning in adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder and high rates of comorbidity. Identifying effective treatments that particularly address depressive symptoms is important in reducing the burden of bipolar disorder.
    Bipolar Disorders 10/2014; 17(2). DOI:10.1111/bdi.12273 · 4.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder is a psychopathy characterized by manic and major depressive episodes. It is important to determine the degree of depression when treating patients with bipolar disorder because 810% of bipolar patients commit suicide during the periods in which they experience major depressive episodes. The Hamilton depression rating scale is most commonly used to estimate the degree of depression in a patient. This paper proposes using the Hamilton depression rating scale to estimate the effectiveness of patient treatment based on the linear mixed effects model and the transition model. Study subjects were recruited from the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital who scored 8 points or above in the Hamilton depression rating scale on their first medical examination. The linear mixed effects model and the transition model were fitted using the Hamilton depression rating scales measured at the baseline, six month, and twelve month follow-ups. Then, Hamilton depression rating scale at the twenty-four month follow-up was predicted using these models. The prediction models were then evaluated by comparing the observed and predicted Hamilton depression rating scales on the twenty-four month follow-up.
    04/2014; 27(2). DOI:10.5351/KJAS.2014.27.2.317
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder is characterized by debilitating episodes of depression and mood elevation (mania or hypomania). For most patients, depressive symptoms are more pervasive than mood elevation or mixed symptoms, and thus have been reported in individual studies to impose a greater burden on affected individuals, caregivers, and society. This article reviews and compiles the literature on the prevalence and burden of syndromal as well as subsyndromal presentations of depression in bipolar disorder patients. The PubMed database was searched for English-language articles using the search terms "bipolar disorder," "bipolar depression," "burden," "caregiver burden," "cost," "costs," "economic," "epidemiology," "prevalence," "quality of life," and "suicide." Search results were manually reviewed, and relevant studies were selected for inclusion as appropriate. Additional references were obtained manually from reviewing the reference lists of selected articles found by computerized search. In aggregate, the findings support the predominance of depressive symptoms compared with mood elevation/mixed symptoms in the course of bipolar illness, and thus an overall greater burden in terms of economic costs, functioning, caregiver burden, and suicide. This review, although comprehensive, provides a study-wise aggregate (rather than a patient-wise meta-analytic) summary of the relevant literature on this topic. In light of its pervasiveness and prevalence, more effective and aggressive treatments for bipolar depression are warranted to mitigate its profound impact upon individuals and society. Such studies could benefit by including metrics not only for mood outcomes, but also for illness burden. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 169S1:S3-S11. DOI:10.1016/S0165-0327(14)70003-5 · 3.71 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
45 Downloads
Available from
May 30, 2014