Phytochemical composition and in vitro pharmacological activity of two rose hip (Rosa canina L.) preparations
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to compare powdered rose hip with and without fruits (Rosae pseudofructus cum/sine fructibus, Rosa canina L., Rosaceae) with regard to their phytochemical profile and their in vitro anti-inflammatory and radical-scavenging properties. The two powders were subsequently extracted with solvents of increasing polarity and tested for inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1, COX-2) and of 5-LOX-mediated leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) formation as well as for DPPH-radical-scavenging capacity. While the water and methanol extracts were inactive in the COX-1, COX-2 and LTB(4) inhibition assays, the n-hexane and the dichloromethane extracts inhibited all three enzymes. In the active extracts, the triterpenoic acids ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid were identified, although only in minute amounts. Furthermore, oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid were identified apart from several saturated fatty acids. Even though unsaturated fatty acids are known to be good inhibitors of COX-1, COX-2 and LT formation, no clear correlation between their concentration in the extracts and their activity was found. We suggest that other, yet unidentified, lipophilic constituents might play a more important role for the observed in vitro inhibitory activity on arachidonic acid metabolism. Some of the extracts also showed considerable DPPH radical scavenging activity, the methanolic extracts being most potent. The radical scavenging activity of the extracts correlated very well with their total phenolic content, while ascorbic acid contributes only little to the radical-scavenging activity due to its low concentration present in the extracts. In summary, extracts derived from powdered rose hip without fruits were more effective in all assays carried out compared with extracts derived from powdered rose hip with fruits.
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ABSTRACT: Asthma is one of the most common chronic disorders and about 7% of the US population suffers from asthma. Initial response to allergy is associated with mediators like histamine, prostaglandin (PG) D2 and leukotriene (LT) C4. In asthmatic patients, 5-lipo-oxygenase (5-LO) pathway produces more LTC4 than the healthy people. Also, pro-inflammatory factors like interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α play a remarkable role in bronchoconstriction. The common asthma medications are associated with a number of unwanted side effects, especially throughout long term treatment. Herbal medication is an alternative treatment for asthma and the plants are rich sources of antioxidants that intensively reduce the activity of free radicals. Among several herbs, Rosa canina (RC) is a potent anti-inflammatory remedy which contains a number of well-known antioxidants including vitamin C, quercetin, hesperidin, rutin and some other therapeutic compounds. The aim of this study was to review the scientific evidences supporting the probable influence of Rosa canina on asthma.Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine 09/2014; 3(1):48-52. DOI:10.7575/aiac.abcmed.15.03.01.14
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ABSTRACT: The crude methanol extracts and fractions of the root and stem barks of Dillenia serrata Thunb. showed 64% to 73% inhibition on the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide-induced human whole blood using a radioimmunoassay technique. Three triterpenoids isolated from the root bark of the plant, koetjapic (1), 3-oxoolean-12-en-30-oic (2), and betulinic (3) acids, exhibited significant concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on PGE2 production with IC50 values of 1.05, 1.54, and 2.59 μM, respectively, as compared with the positive control, indomethacin (IC50 = 0.45 μM). Quantification of compounds 1 and 3 in the methanol extracts and fractions were carried out by using a validated reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. The ethyl acetate fraction of the stem bark showed the highest content of both compound 1 (15.1%) and compound 3 (52.8%). The strong inhibition of the extracts and fractions on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymatic activity was due to the presence of their major constituents, especially koetjapic and betulinic acids.Molecules 02/2015; 20(2):3206-3220. DOI:10.3390/molecules20023206 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the relationship between anti-inflammatory mechanisms and the combined ameliorating effects of rose hip powder (RHP) and green tea seed extract (GTSE) in a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis (OA) animal model. We confirmed the individual effects of RHP (500 mg/kg bw) and GTSE (50 mg/kg bw) in the OA model. Treatment with the mixture of RHP and GTSE (Mix) resulted in significantly enhanced stance and propulsion times compared to treatment with RHP or GTSE alone. To examine the combined effects of RHP and GTSE in vivo, pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were measured. The administration of Mix significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions were attenuated to a greater extent after the administration of Mix compared to the other treatments. Furthermore, we evaluated the anti-osteoarthritic effects of RHP, GTSE, and Mix on articular cartilage damage using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) in OA in rats. After three weeks of treatment, we observed that the administration of RHP, GTSE, and Mix protected against bone destruction and reduced the number of erosion lacunae, but there was no statistical difference among RHP, GTSE, and Mix. Although additional research is warranted, our results suggest that the biological effects of GTSE were enhanced by RHP supplementation to include anti-inflammatory effects, with the potential ability of offering a benefit to OA patients.Animal cells and systems the official publication of the Zoological Society of Korea 01/2015; 19(1). DOI:10.1080/19768354.2014.990058 · 0.35 Impact Factor