Risk of hypospadias in offspring of women using loratadine during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT Loratadine, a second-generation antihistamine, is commonly used to treat seasonal allergies. Some studies have suggested that use of loratadine by pregnant women increases the risk of hypospadias in male offspring.
This meta-analysis was designed to assess the strength of the association between loratadine and hypospadias.
To locate pertinent articles published in any language from January 1989 until August 2007, we searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, OVID, EMBASE, SCOPUS, TOXLINE Special, ReproTox, TERIS, CINAHL and others), conference proceedings and bibliographies. Studies were eligible for this analysis if they were cohort, case-control or case series studies that reported the incidence of hypospadias in the offspring of women who were or were not exposed to loratadine during pregnancy. Two authors independently extracted information on study design, participant characteristics, measures of outcome, control for potential confounding factors and risk estimates using a standardized data collection form. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was then used to assess the quality of each study. We used a random-effects meta-analysis model to combine the risk data.
In 1402 potentially relevant titles, we found three case-control studies and seven cohort studies that reported the incidence of hypospadias or other congenital malformations in offspring of women who did or did not use loratadine during pregnancy. Together the studies in our meta-analysis provided information about 453 053 male births in Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Israel, Italy, Sweden, the UK and the US.Of 2694 male infants born to women using loratadine, 39 (1.4%) had hypospadias. Of 450 413 male infants born to women not using loratadine, 4231 (0.9%) had hypospadias. Women who used loratadine during pregnancy were not significantly more likely to have a son with hypospadias (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.27, 95% CI 0.73, 2.23; adjusted OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.69, 2.39).
The results of our systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled observational studies indicate that the use of loratadine during pregnancy does not significantly increase the risk of hypospadias in male offspring.
SourceAvailable from: Ana C Zenclussen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: During pregnancy, the maternal organism is under the influence of tremendous endocrine as well as immunological changes as an adaptation to the implanted and developing fetus. In most cases, the maternal adaptations to pregnancy ensure both, the protection against harmful pathogens and the tolerance toward the growing semi-allogeneic fetus. However, under certain circumstances the unique hormonal milieu during pregnancy is causative of a shift into an unfavorable direction. Of particular importance are cellular disorders previous to pregnancy that involve cell types known for their susceptibility to hormones. One interesting cell type is the mast cell (MC), one of the key figures in allergic disorders. While physiological numbers of MCs were shown to positively influence pregnancy outcome, at least in mouse models, uncontrolled augmentations in quantity, and/or activation can lead to pregnancy complications. Women that have the desire of getting pregnant and been diagnosed with MC mediated disorders such as urticaria and mastocytosis or chronic inflammatory diseases in which MCs are involved, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, or psoriasis, may benefit from specialized medical assistance to ensure a positive pregnancy outcome. In the present review, we address the course of pregnancy in women affected by MC mediated or associated disorders.Frontiers in Immunology 05/2014; 5:231. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00231
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ABSTRACT: This guideline is the result of a systematic literature review using the 'Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation' (GRADE) methodology and a structured consensus conference held on 28 and 29 November 2012, in Berlin. It is a joint initiative of the Dermatology Section of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the EU-funded network of excellence, the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2) LEN), the European Dermatology Forum (EDF), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO) with the participation of delegates of 21 national and international societies. Urticaria is a frequent, mast cell-driven disease, presenting with wheals, angioedema, or both. The life-time prevalence for acute urticaria is approximately 20%. Chronic spontaneous urticaria and other chronic forms of urticaria do not only cause a decrease in quality of life, but also affect performance at work and school and, as such, are members of the group of severe allergic diseases. This guideline covers the definition and classification of urticaria, taking into account the recent progress in identifying its causes, eliciting factors and pathomechanisms. In addition, it outlines evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for the different subtypes of urticaria. This guideline was acknowledged and accepted by the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS).Allergy 04/2014; 69(7). DOI:10.1111/all.12313 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Several studies have reported an association between use of specific antihistamines in early pregnancy and certain specific birth defects. Objective To test 16 previously hypothesized associations between specific antihistamines and specific birth defects, and to identify possible new associations. Methods We used 1998-2010 data from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study, a multicenter case-control surveillance program of birth defects in North America. Mothers were interviewed within 6 months of delivery about demographic, reproductive, medical, and behavioral factors, and details on the use of prescription and nonprescription medications. We compared first trimester exposure to specific antihistamines between 13,213 infants with specific malformations and 6982 nonmalformed controls by using conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with adjustment for potential confounders, including indication for use. Results Overall, 13.7% of controls were exposed to antihistamines during the first trimester. The most commonly used medications were diphenhydramine (4.2%), loratadine (3.1%), doxylamine (1.9%), and chlorpheniramine (1.7%). When estimates were stable, none supported the previously hypothesized associations. Among more than 100 exploratory comparisons of other specific antihistamine-defect pairs, 14 had odds ratios ≥1.5, of which 6 had 95% CI bounds excluding 1.0 before but not after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Conclusion Our findings do not provide meaningful support for previously posited associations between antihistamines and major congenital anomalies; at the same time, we identified associations that had not been previously suggested. We suspect that previous associations may be chance findings in the context of multiple comparisons, a situation that may also apply to our new findings.11/2013; 1(6):666–674.e1. DOI:10.1016/j.jaip.2013.07.008