We have all at some time experienced the non-specific symptoms that arise from being ill following a systemic infection. These symptoms, such as fever, malaise, lethargy and loss of appetite are often referred to as "sickness behavior" and are a consequence of systemically produced pro-inflammatory mediators. These inflammatory mediators signal to the brain, leading to activation of microglial cells, which in turn, signal to neurons to induce adaptive metabolic and behavioral changes. In normal healthy persons this response is a normal part of our defense, to protect us from infection, to maintain homeostasis and causes no damage to neurons. However, in animals and patients with chronic neurodegenerative disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke and even during normal aging, systemic inflammation leads to inflammatory responses in the brain, an exaggeration of clinical symptoms and increased neuronal death. These observations imply that, as the population ages and the number of individuals with CNS disorders increases, relatively common systemic infections and inflammation will become significant risk factors for disease onset or progression. In this review we discuss the underlying mechanisms responsible for sickness behavior induced by systemic inflammation in the healthy brain and how they might be different in individuals with CNS pathology.
"Neuroinflammation may be associated with cognitive impairment in animals ,  and in patients . Therefore, we assessed the effects of the peripheral surgical wounding without the influence of general anesthesia on neuroinflammation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Neuroinflammation and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) have been reported to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in humans and cognitive impairment in animals. Our recent studies have established a pre-clinical model in mice, and have found that the peripheral surgical wounding without the influence of general anesthesia induces an age-dependent Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in mice. We therefore set out to assess the effects of peripheral surgical wounding, in the absence of general anesthesia, on neuroinflammation in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in 9 and 18 month-old mice. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Iba1 positive cells (the marker of microglia activation), CD33, and cognitive function in mice were determined. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and Iba1 positive cells in the hippocampus of both 9 and 18 month-old mice, and age potentiated these effects. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of CD33 in the hippocampus of 18, but not 9, month-old mice. Finally, anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen ameliorated the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgical wounding could induce an age-dependent neuroinflammation and elevation of CD33 levels in the hippocampus of mice, which could lead to cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pending further studies, anti-inflammatory therapies may reduce the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients.
PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e96752. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0096752 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"In a variety of inflammatory conditions, reasonable upregulation of IL-1β has been shown to limit extreme inflammatory responses, with a possibility of rapidly activated phagocytosis of dead or dying cells to prevent a release of a cascade of proinflammatory cytokines and to resolve inflammation. Nevertheless, excess IL-1β can significantly worsen inflammation and tissue injury [9,13,22]. Thus, these signals should be regulated very tightly to balance proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Brikos and colleagues found that the cytoplasmic portion of TLRs, called the Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain is highly similar to that of the IL-1 receptor family . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory reaction in blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) plays a crucial role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. It has been shown that microglia could be activated through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Therefore, we hypothesize that TLR4 is involved in the microglial activation and BSCB disruption after I/R.
To verify our hypothesis, we analyzed the behavioral data, changes of BSCB permeability, as well as expressions of microglial marker Iba-1 and TLR4 in spinal cord I/R model induced by 14 min aortic occlusion. Double immunostaining reveals that after I/R, Iba-1 immunoreactivity increased gradually 12 h after reperfusion and maintained at a such level throughout 36 h. Such increasing pattern of Iba-1 expression is consistent with the increases in Evan's Blue (EB) extravasation, spinal water content and mechanical allodynia demonstrated by lowed withdrawal threshold to Von Frey filaments. Moreover, double immunostaining suggested that TLR4 was highly expressed in microglia. Intrathecal infusion of minocycline and TAK-242 (TLR4 inhibitor) treatment attenuated I/R-induced allodynia and BSCB leakage. In contrast, LPS induced TLR4 expression aggregated above-mentioned injuries. Furthermore, the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activity has a similar profile as TLR4 activity. It is consisted with the results of NF-kappaB mRNA and protein expression changes and activation of downstream cytokine, IL-1beta. Expectedly, intrathecal infusion of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a NF-kappaB inhibitor, showed similar protective effects as minocycline and TAK-242. In addition, our data show that TLR4 closely involved in I/R-induced inflammatory damage induced neuronal apoptosis. Significantly, neutralizing TLR4 function largely reduced neuronal apoptosis determined by NeuN immunoreactivity in ventral gray matter and increased percentage of double-label cells with cleaved caspase3, whereas LPS reversed these effects. Similarly, inhibitions of microglia and NF-kappaB with minocycline or PDTC treatment accordingly perform the same protective effects on I/R injury.
The results indicate that compromised BSCB caused by I/R injury lead to spinal microglial activation and TLR4, its membrane-bound receptor, up-regulation, which then initiate neuro-inflammation and neuro-apoptosis via NF-kappaB/ IL-1beta pathway. To inhibit the positive feedback loop of TLR4-microglia-NF-kappaB/ IL-1beta pathway by minocycline, TAK-242 (TLR4 inhibitor) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, NF-kappaB inhibitor) may provide new targets for treating I/R injury in clinic.
"It has been demonstrated that the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), increases following surgery (4,5). These pro-inflammatory cytokines may trigger broad neuroinflammation in the brain (6). Thus, the effective inhibition of the activity of signaling pathways involved in inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression shows promise for the prevention and treatment for POCD. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is common in elderly patients. Senegenin, an active component of extracts from Polygala tenuifolia root, a traditional Chinese medicine, has neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects. However, the mechanism underlying the effects of senegenin against postoperative cognitive impairment in elderly individuals has yet to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of senegenin on the cognitive functions of elderly rats with splenectomy-induced POCD. Results from a Morris water maze test suggested that splenectomy induced a transient cognitive deficiency in the elderly rats; however, when the rats were treated with senegenin, the cognitive impairment was notably attenuated. Further experiments showed that senegenin significantly inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines, specifically, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and IL-8, in the hippocampal tissues of elderly rats following splenectomy. In order to investigate the molecular mechanism involved, the expression and activity of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway was assessed. On day 1 postoperatively, it was observed that senegenin markedly suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF). Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and inhibitor of NF-κB (IκBα) were also decreased following senegenin treatment on the first day subsequent to surgery. These results suggest that senegenin suppressed splenectomy-induced transient cognitive impairment in elderly rats, possibly by downregulating two signaling pathways involved in inflammation, TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and TLR4/TRIF/NF-κB, to further inhibit the expression of key pro-inflammatory cytokines, specifically, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8, and ultimately the neuroinflammation in the hippocampal tissues. In conclusion, the present study revealed that senegenin exhibited neuroprotective effects against splenectomy-induced transient cognitive impairment in elderly rats, which indicated that senegenin may be a promising agent for the treatment of POCD.
Experimental and therapeutic medicine 04/2014; 7(4):821-826. DOI:10.3892/etm.2014.1501 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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