Development of stabilin2+ endothelial cells from mouse embryonic stem cells by inhibition of TGFbeta/activin signaling.
ABSTRACT To understand the endothelial cell (EC) development, arterial, venous, and lymphatic EC (LEC) have been successfully induced from embryonic stem cells (ESC). However, tissue-specific EC, such as hepatic sinusoidal EC (HSEC), have never been generated from ESC. Based on the findings that TGFbeta/activin signaling negatively regulates differentiation of both LEC and HSEC, and that HSEC and LEC are distinguishable by the expression of marker genes, we assessed the role of TGFbeta/activin signaling in EC development from ESC. Here we show that the inhibition of TGFbeta/activin signaling by a TGFbeta receptor I (TGFbetaRI) kinase inhibitor increased the expression of Lyve1 and stabilin2 but not podoplanin in CD31+CD34+ EC derived from ESC. EC generated by the inhibition of TGFbetaRI signaling also exhibited stronger endocytic activity than control EC, indicating that their phenotype is similar to fetal HSEC. Our results reveal that TGFbeta/activin signaling negatively regulates the early events of HSEC differentiation.
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ABSTRACT: Tissue engineering is the process by which biological structures are recreated using a combination of molecular signals, cellular components and scaffolds. Although the perceived potential of this approach to reconstruct damaged or missing tissues is seemingly limitless, application of these ideas in vivo has been more difficult than expected. However, despite these obstacles, important advancements have been reported for a number of organ systems, including recent reports on the lymphatic system. These advancements are important since the lymphatic system plays a central role in immune responses, regulation of inflammation, lipid absorption and interstitial fluid homeostasis. Insights obtained over the past two decades have advanced our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern lymphatic development and function. Utilizing this knowledge has led to important advancements in lymphatic tissue engineering, which is the topic of this review.Future Oncology 09/2013; 9(9):1365-74. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have determined the occurrence of responses at different levels (morphological, physiological and biochemical) in the omnivorous rodent Akodon azarae upon cold acclimation (15 degrees C). A short-term enhancement in food consumption appeared to account for the maintenance of both mass and body composition. At the morphological level, the main response was an increase in the dimensions of small intestine, which constitutes the section of the gut where absorption and secretion take place. An increase in sucrase specific activity was only found in small intestine. Sucrose independent maltase activity was very low since 99.8% of total maltase activity was due to sucrase-isomaltase (SI) complex. Protease specific activities were not affected. The fact that resting metabolic rates determined at 15 and 23 degrees C were similar in cold acclimated animals suggests a change in lower critical temperature. In conclusion, our results show that A. azarae exhibits different strategies to support cold environment that could lead to an enhancement in digestion and absorption efficiency. Furthermore, this work suggests that low temperature is an independent cue of other environmental factors to trigger the strategies allowing the maintenance of body condition in A. azarae.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A Molecular & Integrative Physiology 01/2005; 139(4):503-12. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since the realization that embryonic stem cells are maintained in a pluripotent state through the interplay of a number of key signal transduction pathways, it is becoming increasingly clear that stemness and pluripotency are defined by the complex molecular convergence of these pathways. Perhaps this has most clearly been demonstrated by the capacity to induce pluripotency in differentiated cell types, so termed iPS cells. We are therefore building an understanding of how cells may be maintained in a pluripotent state, and how we may manipulate cells to drive them between committed and pluripotent compartments. However, it is less clear how cells normally pass in and out of the stem cell compartment under normal and diseased physiological states in vivo, and indeed, how important these pathways are in these settings. It is also clear that there is a potential "dark side" to manipulating the stem cell compartment, as deregulation of somatic stem cells is being increasingly implicated in carcinogenesis and the generation of "cancer stem cells." This review explores these relationships, with a particular focus on the role played by key molecular regulators of stemness in tissue repair, and the possibility that a better understanding of this control may open the door to novel repair strategies in vivo. The successful development of such strategies has the potential to replace or augment intervention-based strategies (cell replacement therapies), although it is clear they must be developed with a full understanding of how such approaches might also influence tumorigenesis.Physiological Reviews 01/2012; 92(1):75-99. · 30.17 Impact Factor