Alaska Native smokers and smokeless tobacco users with slower CYP2A6 activity have lower tobacco consumption, lower tobacco specific nitrosamine exposure and lower tobacco specific nitrosamine bioactivation.
ABSTRACT Nicotine, the psychoactive ingredient in tobacco, is metabolically inactivated by CYP2A6 to cotinine. CYP2A6 also activates procarcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). Genetic variation in CYP2A6 is known to alter smoking quantity and lung cancer risk in heavy smokers. Our objective was to investigate how CYP2A6 activity influences tobacco consumption and procarcinogen levels in light smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Cigarette smokers (n=141), commercial smokeless tobacco users (n=73), and iqmik users (n=20) were recruited in a cross-sectional study of Alaska Native people. The participant' CYP2A6 activity was measured by both endophenotype and genotype, and their tobacco and procarcinogen exposure biomarker levels were also measured. Smokers, smokeless tobacco users and iqmik users with lower CYP2A6 activity had lower urinary total nicotine equivalents (TNE) and NNAL levels (a biomarker of TSNA exposure). Levels of NNN, a TSNA metabolically bioactivated by CYP2A6, were higher in smokers with lower CYP2A6 activities. Light smokers and smokeless tobacco users with lower CYP2A6 activity reduce their tobacco consumption in ways (e.g. inhaling less deeply) that are not reflected by self-report indicators. Tobacco users with lower CYP2A6 activity are exposed to lower procarcinogen levels (lower NNAL levels) and have lower procarcinogen bioactivation (as indicated by the higher urinary NNN levels suggesting reduced clearance), which is consistent with a lower risk of developing smoking related cancers. This study demonstrates the importance of CYP2A6 in the regulation of tobacco consumption behaviors, procarcinogen exposure and metabolism in both light smokers and smokeless tobacco users.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract CYP2A6 metabolizes clinically relevant drugs, including antiretroviral and antimalarial drugs of major public health importance for the African populations. CYP2A6 genotype-phenotype relationship in African populations, and implications of geographic differences on enzyme activity, remain to be investigated. We evaluated the influence of CYP2A6 genotype, geographical differences, gender, and cigarette smoking on enzyme activity, using caffeine as a probe in 100 healthy unrelated Ethiopians living in Ethiopia, and 72 living in Sweden. CYP2A6 phenotype was estimated by urinary 1,7-dimethyluric acid (17U)/1,7-dimethylxanthine or paraxanthine (17X) ratio. The frequencies of CYP2A6*1B, *1D, *2, *4, *9, and *1x2 in Ethiopians were 31.3, 29.4, 0.6, 0.6, 2.8, and 0.3%, respectively. The overall mean±SD for log 17U/17X was 0.12±0.24 and coefficient of variation 199%. No significant difference in the mean log 17U/17X ratio between Ethiopians living in Sweden versus Ethiopia was observed. Analysis of variance revealed CYP2A6 genotype (p=0.04, F=2.01) but not geographical differences, sex, or cigarette smoking as predictors of CYP2A6 activity. Importantly, the median (interquartile range) of 17U/17X ratio in Ethiopians 1.35 (0.99 to 1.84) was 3- and 11-fold higher than the previously reported value in Swedes 0.52 (0.27 to 1.00) and Koreans 0.13 (0.0 to 0.35), respectively (Djordjevic et al., 2013). Taken together, we report here the relevance of CYP2A6 genotype for enzyme activity in this Ethiopian sample, as well as high CYP2A6 activity and unique distribution of the CYP2A6 variant alleles in Ethiopians as compared other populations described hitherto. Because Omics biomarker research is rapidly accelerating in Africa, CYP2A6 pharmacogenetics and clinical pharmacology observations reported herein for the Ethiopian populations have clinical and biological importance to plan for future rational therapeutics efforts in the African continent as well as therapeutics as a global science.Omics: a journal of integrative biology 12/2013; DOI:10.1089/omi.2013.0140 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, is a biomarker of tobacco, nicotine and carcinogen exposure. However a given cotinine level may not represent the same tobacco exposure; for example, African Americans have higher cotinine levels than Caucasians after controlling for exposure. METHODS: Cotinine levels are determined by the amount of cotinine formation and the rate of cotinine removal which are both mediated by the enzyme CYP2A6. Since CYP2A6 activity differs by sex (estrogen induces CYP2A6) and genotype, their effect on cotinine formation and removal were measured in non-smoking Caucasians (Study 1, n=181) infused with labeled nicotine and cotinine. The findings were then extended to ad libitum smokers (Study 2, n=163). RESULTS: Study 1: Reduced CYP2A6 activity altered cotinine formation less than cotinine removal resulting in ratios of formation to removal of 1.31 and 1.12 in CYP2A6 reduced and normal metabolizers (P=0.01), or 1.39 and 1.12 in males and females (P=0.001), suggesting an overestimation of tobacco exposure in slower metabolizers. Study 2: Cotinine again overestimated tobacco and carcinogen exposure by ≥25% in CYP2A6 reduced metabolizers (≈2 fold between some genotypes) and in males. CONCLUSIONS: In people with slower, relative to faster, CYP2A6 activity cotinine accumulates resulting in substantial differences in cotinine levels for a given tobacco exposure. Impact: Cotinine levels may be misleading when comparing those with differing CYP2A6 genotypes within a race, between races with differing frequencies of CYP2A6 gene variants (i.e. African Americans have higher frequencies of reduced function variants contributing to their higher cotinine levels) or between the sexes.Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 01/2013; 22(4). DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-1234-T · 4.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gene variants in CHRNA5-A3-B4, which encode for the α5, α3 and β4 nicotinic receptor subunits, are associated with altered smoking behaviors in European-Americans. Little is known about CHRNA5-A3-B4 and its association with smoking behaviors and weight in Alaska-Native people, which is a population with high prevalence but low levels of tobacco consumption, extensive smokeless tobacco use, and high rates of obesity. We investigated CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotype structure and its association with nicotine intake and obesity in Alaska-Native people. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: A cross sectional study of 400 Alaska-Native individuals including 290 tobacco users. MEASUREMENTS: CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype, body weight, and tobacco consumption biomarkers such as plasma cotinine and urinary total nicotine equivalents (TNE). FINDINGS: Alaska-Native people have a distinct CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotype structure compared with European/African-Americans. In 290 Alaska-Native tobacco users, the 'G' allele of rs578776, which tagged a 30kb haplotype in CHRNA5-A3-B4, was prevalent (16%) and significantly associated with nicotine intake (20% higher plasma cotinine, P<0.001, 16% higher TNE, P=0.076), while rs16969968 was not associated with nicotine intake. Rs578776 acted in combination with CYP2A6, the main nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, to increase nicotine intake by 1.8 fold compared with the low risk group (P<0.001). Furthermore rs2869950, a single nucleotide polymorphism 5' to CHRNB4, was significantly associated with increased body mass index (P<0.01) in the tobacco users even after controlling for differences in nicotine intake (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants in CHRNA5-A3-B4 alter nicotine intake and body mass index in a population of Alaska-Native people, who have a distinct haplotype structure, smoking behaviors and prevalence of obesity.Addiction 05/2013; 108(10). DOI:10.1111/add.12250 · 4.60 Impact Factor