Objective Quantification of the Ki67 Proliferative Index in Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Gastroenteropancreatic System: A Comparison of Digital Image Analysis With Manual Methods.
ABSTRACT Pathologic grading for prognostic stratification of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is critical but presents a challenging interpretive dilemma. Tumor cell proliferative rate is an important factor in the determination of prognosis, and immunohistochemical analysis with Ki67 is becoming more widely used to quantify the proliferative rate. However, Ki67 assessment has limitations due to lack of uniformity and consistency in quantification. These limitations are accentuated in well-differentiated NETs, as differences in the range of 1% to 5% can alter tumor grade, with potential implications for treatment. We therefore performed a concordance study to assess different Ki67 quantification techniques including: (a) digital image analysis (DIA); (b) manual counting (MC) of >2000 cells; and (c) "eyeballed" estimate (EE) of labeling percentage by pathologists (n=18), including individuals experienced in evaluating Ki67 labeling as well as others who had little prior experience assessing Ki67 percentages. Forty-five Ki67 images were selected and analyzed using the 3 methods. On the basis of the recommendations of the World health Organization (WHO) for grading NETs, MC of 2000 cells was used as the "gold standard" reference against which the other techniques were compared. Three images were presented twice, the second being inverted, to assess intraobserver consistency. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate: (a) the concordance between methods; (b) intraobserver and interobserver consistency; and (c) correlation of NET grades on the basis of Ki67 scores by EE versus the gold standard. Agreement between scores was assessed by intraclass correlation (ICC). DIA and MC were highly concordant (ICC=0.98). The ICC between DIA and the mean EE of all observers was 0.88. However, there was discordance among individual observers on all cases quantified by EE (ICC=0.13). The ICC for intraobserver consistency was 0.39±0.26. With Ki67 in the ranges of <1%, 2% to 3%, and >20%, the mean of Ki67 by EE was, respectively, 93%±2%, 55%±7%, and 55%±15% correct against the gold standard. The κ statistics for EE exhibited low agreement (κ=0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.25) for all WHO NET grades. Incorrect assessment by EE resulted in upgrading of all WHO G1 group tumors (n=14); in the WHO G2 group, downgrading of 41% cases occurred (n=11) when Ki67 was <5% (by DIA or MC), and upgrading of 59% cases occurred (n=16) when Ki67 was >5%. We conclude that DIA and MC are the acceptable standards for Ki67 assessment. Given the inherent discordance in determining the grade, the use of an approximate EE of the Ki67-labeling index requires critical reevaluation, especially for NETs with a labeling index straddling the cut-points between grades. Consequently, determination of therapeutic strategies should be guided by an amalgamation of clinicopathologic characteristics, including but not limited to the Ki67 index.
- SourceAvailable from: Annibale VersariJournal of endocrinological investigation 07/2014; · 1.65 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background The histopathologic distinction between typical carcinoid (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC) of the lung is based largely on mitotic index. Ki-67 may aid in separation of these tumors, as well as the distinction from large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC).Methods We identified 55 surgically resected primary neuroendocrine lung tumors (39 TC, 7 AC, 9 LCNEC) based on mitotic rate and histologic features. Ki-67 proliferative index based on automated image analysis, tumor necrosis, nodal metastases, local or distant recurrence, and survival were compared across groups.ResultsThe mean mitotic count and Ki-67 index for TC, AC, and LCNEC were 0.1 and 2.3%, 3.4 and 16.8%, and 56.1 and 81.3% respectively. The Ki-67 index did not overlap among groups, with ranges of 0¿6.7% for TC, 9.9-25.7% for AC, and 63.2-91.9% for LCNEC. Nodal metastases were identified in 4/39 (10%) TC, 2/7 (22%) AC, and 2/8 (25%) LCNEC. There was no survival difference between TC and AC, but there was a significant survival difference between LCNEC and TC and AC combined (p¿<¿0.001). There was a step-wise increase in disease free survival with tumor grade: no TC recurred, 2/7 AC recurred or progressed (median interval 35.5 months), and all LCNEC recurred or progressed (median interval 10.1 months). No patient with TC or AC died of disease, compared to 7/8 LCNEC with follow-up data.Conclusions We conclude that Ki-67 index is a useful diagnostic marker for neuroendocrine tumors, with 7% a divider between AC and TC, and 50% a divider between LCNEC and AC. LCNEC is biologically different from AC and TC, with a much more aggressive course, and a high Ki-67 index.Virtual SlidesThe virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/13000_2014_174.Diagnostic Pathology 10/2014; 9(1):174. · 2.41 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The prognostic value of proliferation index (PI) and apoptotic index (AI), caspase-8, -9 and -10 expression have been investigated in primary Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours (ESFT). Proliferating cells, detected by immunohistochemistry for Ki-67, were identified in 91% (91/100) of tumours with a median PI of 14 (range 0-87). Apoptotic cells, identified using the TUNEL assay, were detected in 96% (76/79) of ESFT; the median AI was 3 (range 0-33). Caspase-8 protein expression was negative (0) in 14% (11/79), low (1) in 33% (26/79), medium (2) in 38% (30/79) and high (3) in 15% (12/79) of tumours, caspase-9 expression was low (1) in 66% (39/59) and high (3) in 34% (20/59), and caspase-10 protein was low (1) in 37% (23/62) and negative (0) in 63% (39/62) of primary ESFT. There was no apparent relationship between caspase-8, -9 and -10 expression, PI and AI. PI was predictive of relapse-free survival (RFS; p = 0.011) and overall survival (OS; p = <0.001) in a continuous model, whereas AI did not predict outcome. Patients with tumours expressing low levels of caspase-9 protein had a trend towards a worse RFS than patients with tumours expressing higher levels of caspase-9 protein (p = 0.054, log rank test), although expression of caspases-8, -9 and/or -10 did not significantly predict RFS or OS. In a multivariate analysis model that included tumour site, tumour volume, the presence of metastatic disease at diagnosis, PI and AI, PI independently predicts OS (p = 0.003). Consistent with previous publications, patients with pelvic tumours had a significantly worse OS than patients with tumours at other sites (p = 0.028); patients with a pelvic tumour and a PI≥20 had a 6 fold-increased risk of death. These studies advocate the evaluation of PI in a risk model of outcome for patients with ESFT.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104106. · 3.53 Impact Factor