MicroRNAs and neurodegeneration: role and impact
ABSTRACT Neurodegenerative diseases are typically late-onset, progressive disorders that affect neural function and integrity. Although most attention has been focused on the genetic underpinnings of familial disease, mechanisms are likely to be shared with more predominant sporadic forms, which can be influenced by age, environment, and genetic inputs. Previous work has largely addressed the roles of select protein-coding genes; however, disease pathogenesis is complicated and can be modulated through not just protein-coding genes, but also regulatory mechanisms mediated by the exploding world of small non-coding RNAs. Here, we focus on emerging roles of miRNAs in age-associated events impacting long-term brain integrity and neurodegenerative disease.
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ABSTRACT: Recent research has highlighted roles for non-coding RNA i7n the regulation of stress tolerance in bats. In this study, we propose that microRNA could also play an important role in neuronal maintenance during hibernation. To explore this possibility, RT-PCR was employed to investigate the expression of eleven microRNAs from the brain tissue of euthermic control and torpid bats. Results show that eight microRNAs (miR-21, -29b, -103, -107, -124a, -132, -183 and -501) increased (1.2–1.9 fold) in torpid bats, while the protein expression of Dicer, a microRNA processing enzyme, did not significantly change during torpor. Bioinformatic analysis of the differentially expressed microRNA suggests that these microRNAs are mainly involved in two processes: (1) focal adhesion and (2) axon guidance. To determine the extent of microRNA sequence conservation in the bat, we successfully identified bat microRNA from sequence alignments against known mouse (Mus musculus) microRNA. We successfully identified 206 conserved pre-microRNA sequences, leading to the identification of 344 conserved mature microRNA sequences. Sequence homology of the identified sequences was found to be 94.76 ± 3.95% and 98.87 ± 2.24% for both pre- and mature microRNAs, respectively. Results suggest that brain function related to the differentiation of neurons and adaptive neuroprotection may be under microRNA control during bat hibernation.Gene 07/2014; 544(1):67–74. DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2014.04.048 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Molecular genetics insight into the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, encourage direct interference with the activity of neurotoxic genes or the molecular activation of neuroprotective pathways. Oligonucleotide-based therapies are recently emerging as an efficient strategy for drug development and these can be employed as new treatments of neurodegenerative states. Here we review advances in this field in recent years which suggest an encouraging assessment that oligonucleotide technologies for targeting of RNAs will enable the development of new therapies and will contribute to preservation of brain integrity.Brain research 04/2014; 1584. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.04.005 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in various human diseases, ranging from cancer to cardiovascular hypertrophy. The expression profiles of the miRNAs clearly differentiate the normal from the pathological state and thus their potential as novel biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of several human diseases is immense. Emerging data on the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of various human diseases have paved the way to test their ability to act as novel therapeutic tools. In the present review, we will explore the current knowledge about the role of miRNAs in various human diseases. In addition, we will focus on the emerging evidences demonstrating the potential of miRNAs as novel biomarkers and the strategies to use them as therapeutic tools.Cell and Tissue Research 02/2014; 358(1). DOI:10.1007/s00441-013-1787-3 · 3.33 Impact Factor