Predictive factors of acute respiratory failure in esophagectomy for esophageal malignancy.
ABSTRACT Acute respiratory failure (ARespF) is a common complication after esophagectomy that contributes to higher morbidity and mortality. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, we sought to identify predictors of ARespF in 6352 patients who underwent esophagectomy for malignancy between 2006 and 2008. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify preoperative factors (patient characteristics, comorbidities, procedural type, tumor's location, hospital teaching status, and payer type) predictive of ARespF in esophagectomy. The overall rate of ARespF was 27.08 per cent. For comorbidities, independent risk factors for higher rate of ARF included weight loss (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.02 to 4.37), pulmonary hypertension (AOR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.85 to 3.45), congestive heart failure (AOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.77 to 3.13), liver disease (AOR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.22 to 3.12), chronic lung disease (AOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.66), and anemia (AOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.51). Cervical location of malignancy (AOR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.51 to 3.56), total esophagectomy (AOR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.41 to 1.90), and nonteaching hospital (AOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.75) were independent risk factors for ARespF. There was no effect of age, gender, race, hypertension, diabetes, renal failure, obesity, smoking, peripheral vascular disorder, or payer type on ARespF. We identified multiple preoperative risk factors that have an impact on development of ARespF after esophagectomy. Surgeons can use these factors to inform patients of potential risks and should consider these factors during surgical-decision making.