216 cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy: risk factors for postoperative complications.
ABSTRACT Surgical resection remains the best treatment for patients with periampullary tumors. Many series have been reported with low or zero mortality, however, high incidence of complications is the rule. This study aims to present the results of pancreaticoduodenectomy and factors predisposing to postoperative complications, especially pancreatic leak, at our center.
Between January 2000 and December 2006, 216 periampullary tumors were treated by Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pancreaticogastrostomy was done in 183 patients and pancreaticojejunostomy in 33 patients. Hospital mortality and surgical complications were recorded with special emphasis on pancreatic leak. All specimens were histologically examined for the presence and origin of malignant tissue.
The mean age was 58 years and male to female ratio was 2:1. The commonest symptom was jaundice (97.7%) followed by abdominal pain (74%). Operative mortality in 7 patients (3.2%). 71 (33%) patients developed 1 or more complications, pancreatic leak occurred in 23 (10.6%) patients, abdominal collection in 23 patients (10.6%) and delayed gastric emptying in 19 (8.8%) patients. Factors that influenced the development of postoperative complications included type of pancreaticoenteric anastomosis, pancreatic texture and intraoperative blood transfusion of 4 or more blood units. Pancreatic leak was commoner with PJ (p=0.001), soft pancreatic texture (p=0.008), intraoperative blood transfusion of 4 or more units (p<0.0001). Periampullary adenocarcinoma was found in 204 (94.4%) patients, chronic pancreatitis in 9 (4.2%) patients, 2 patients with solid and papillary neoplasm, and 1 patient with NHL (Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma).
Surgery is the only hope for patients with periampullary tumors. Postoperative complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy depend largely on surgical technique and can be reduced reasonably with the adoption of pancreaticogastrostomy, which is safer and easier to learn than pancreaticojejunostomy.
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer incidence in India is low. Over the years, refinements in technique of pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) may have improved outcomes. No data is available from India, South-Central, or South West Asia to assess the impact of these refinements. To assess the impact of service reconfiguration and standardized protocols on outcomes of PD in a tertiary cancer center in India. Three specific time periods marking major shifts in practice and performance of PD were identified, viz. periods A (1992-2001; pancreaticogastrostomy predominantly performed), B (2003-July 2009; standardization of pancreaticojejunal anastomosis), and C (August 2009-December 2011; introduction of neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy and increased surgical volume). 500 PDs were performed with a morbidity and mortality rate of 33% and 5.4%, respectively. Over the three periods, volume of cases/year significantly increased from 16 to 60 (p < 0.0001). Overall incidence of post-operative pancreatic anastomotic leak/fistula (POPF), hemorrhage, delayed gastric emptying (DGE), and bile leak was 11%, 6%, 3.4%, and 3.2%, respectively. The overall morbidity rates, as well as, the above individual complications significantly reduced from period A to B (p < 0.01) with no statistical difference between periods B and C. Evolution of practice and perioperative management of PD for pancreatic cancer at our center improved perioperative outcomes and helped sustain the improvements despite increasing surgical volume. By adopting standardized practices and gradually improving experience, countries with low incidence of pancreatic cancer and resource constraints can achieve outcomes comparable to high-incidence, developed nations. The manuscript represents the largest series on perioperative outcomes for pancreatoduodenectomy from South West and South-Central Asia - a region with a low incidence of pancreatic cancer and a disproportionate distribution of resources highlighting the impact of high volumes, standardization and service reconfiguration.Pancreatology 01/2013; 13(1):63-71. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As the literature on afferent loop obstruction (ALO) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is very limited, standardized rules for its management do not exist. Herein, we report the case of a 65-year-old male patient with chronic ALO who had undergone PD with single Roux-en-Y limb reconstruction and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic head adenocarcinoma 2 years earlier. The patient was brought to the operating room with the diagnosis of radiation enteritis of the afferent loop with segmental involvement and concurrent hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) and pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) stricture. Complete mobilization of the afferent loop, removal of the affected segment and reconstruction were performed. Reconstruction of the afferent loop was a one-way option for the surgeons because the Roux-en-Y reconstruction limited endoscopic access to the afferent loop, and the segmental radiation injury of the afferent loop ruled out bypass surgery. However, mobilization of the affected segment through a field of dense adhesions and revision of the HJ and PJ were technically demanding.Case Reports in Oncology 01/2013; 6(2):424-9.
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ABSTRACT: To elucidate surgical outcomes of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) in patients with liver cirrhosis. We studied retrospectively all patients who underwent PD in our centre between January 2002 and December 2011. Group A comprised patients with cirrhotic livers, and Group B comprised patients with non-cirrhotic livers. The cirrhotic patients had Child-Pugh classes A and B (patient's score less than 8). Preoperative demographic data, intra-operative data and postoperative details were collected. The primary outcome measure was hospital mortality rate. Secondary outcomes analysed included duration of the operation, postoperative hospital stay, postoperative morbidity and survival rate. Only 67/442 patients (15.2%) had cirrhotic livers. Intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion were significantly higher in group A (P = 0.0001). The mean surgical time in group A was significantly longer than that in group B (P = 0.0001). Wound complications (P = 0.02), internal haemorrhage (P = 0.05), pancreatic fistula (P = 0.02) and hospital mortality (P = 0.0001) were significantly higher in the cirrhotic patients. Postoperative stay was significantly longer in group A (P = 0.03). The median survival was 19 mo in group A and 24 mo in group B. Portal hypertension (PHT) was present in 16/67 cases of cirrhosis (23.9%). The intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion were significantly higher in patients with PHT (P = 0.001). Postoperative morbidity (0.07) and hospital mortality (P = 0.007) were higher in cirrhotic patients with PHT. Patients with periampullary tumours and well-compensated chronic liver disease should be routinely considered for PD at high volume centres with available expertise to manage liver cirrhosis. PD is associated with an increased risk of postoperative morbidity in patients with liver cirrhosis; therefore, it is only recommended in patients with Child A cirrhosis without portal hypertension.World Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2013; 19(41):7129-37. · 2.55 Impact Factor