216 cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy: risk factors for postoperative complications.
ABSTRACT Surgical resection remains the best treatment for patients with periampullary tumors. Many series have been reported with low or zero mortality, however, high incidence of complications is the rule. This study aims to present the results of pancreaticoduodenectomy and factors predisposing to postoperative complications, especially pancreatic leak, at our center.
Between January 2000 and December 2006, 216 periampullary tumors were treated by Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pancreaticogastrostomy was done in 183 patients and pancreaticojejunostomy in 33 patients. Hospital mortality and surgical complications were recorded with special emphasis on pancreatic leak. All specimens were histologically examined for the presence and origin of malignant tissue.
The mean age was 58 years and male to female ratio was 2:1. The commonest symptom was jaundice (97.7%) followed by abdominal pain (74%). Operative mortality in 7 patients (3.2%). 71 (33%) patients developed 1 or more complications, pancreatic leak occurred in 23 (10.6%) patients, abdominal collection in 23 patients (10.6%) and delayed gastric emptying in 19 (8.8%) patients. Factors that influenced the development of postoperative complications included type of pancreaticoenteric anastomosis, pancreatic texture and intraoperative blood transfusion of 4 or more blood units. Pancreatic leak was commoner with PJ (p=0.001), soft pancreatic texture (p=0.008), intraoperative blood transfusion of 4 or more units (p<0.0001). Periampullary adenocarcinoma was found in 204 (94.4%) patients, chronic pancreatitis in 9 (4.2%) patients, 2 patients with solid and papillary neoplasm, and 1 patient with NHL (Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma).
Surgery is the only hope for patients with periampullary tumors. Postoperative complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy depend largely on surgical technique and can be reduced reasonably with the adoption of pancreaticogastrostomy, which is safer and easier to learn than pancreaticojejunostomy.
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ABSTRACT: A 70-year-old man had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy due to a distal common bile duct malignancy. After the operation, serous fluid discharge decreased from two drain tubes in the retroperitoneum. Over four weeks, the appearance of the serous fluid changed to a greenish bile color and the patient persistently drained over 300 ml/day. Viewed as bile leak at the choledochojejunostomy, treatment called for endoscopic diagnosis and therapy. Cap-fitted forward-viewing endoscopy demonstrated that the distal tip of a pancreatic drain catheter inserted at the pancreaticojejunostomy site had penetrated the opposite jejunum wall. One of the drain tubes primarily placed in the retroperitoneum had also penetrated the jejunum wall, with the distal tip positioned near the choledochojejunostomy site. No leak of contrast appeared beyond the jejunum or anastomosis site. Following repositioning of a penetrating catheter of the pancreaticojejunostomy, four days later, the patient underwent removal of two drain tubes without additional complications. In conclusion, the distal tip of the catheter, placed to drain pancreatic juice, penetrated the jejunum wall and may have caused localized perijejunal inflammation. The other drain tube, placed in the retroperitoneal space, might then have penetrated the inflamed wall of the jejunum, allowing persistent bile drainage via the drain tube. The results masqueraded as bile leakage following pancreaticoduodenectomy.Case Reports in Gastroenterology 05/2011; 5(2):295-300.
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ABSTRACT: To elucidate surgical outcomes of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) in patients with liver cirrhosis. We studied retrospectively all patients who underwent PD in our centre between January 2002 and December 2011. Group A comprised patients with cirrhotic livers, and Group B comprised patients with non-cirrhotic livers. The cirrhotic patients had Child-Pugh classes A and B (patient's score less than 8). Preoperative demographic data, intra-operative data and postoperative details were collected. The primary outcome measure was hospital mortality rate. Secondary outcomes analysed included duration of the operation, postoperative hospital stay, postoperative morbidity and survival rate. Only 67/442 patients (15.2%) had cirrhotic livers. Intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion were significantly higher in group A (P = 0.0001). The mean surgical time in group A was significantly longer than that in group B (P = 0.0001). Wound complications (P = 0.02), internal haemorrhage (P = 0.05), pancreatic fistula (P = 0.02) and hospital mortality (P = 0.0001) were significantly higher in the cirrhotic patients. Postoperative stay was significantly longer in group A (P = 0.03). The median survival was 19 mo in group A and 24 mo in group B. Portal hypertension (PHT) was present in 16/67 cases of cirrhosis (23.9%). The intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion were significantly higher in patients with PHT (P = 0.001). Postoperative morbidity (0.07) and hospital mortality (P = 0.007) were higher in cirrhotic patients with PHT. Patients with periampullary tumours and well-compensated chronic liver disease should be routinely considered for PD at high volume centres with available expertise to manage liver cirrhosis. PD is associated with an increased risk of postoperative morbidity in patients with liver cirrhosis; therefore, it is only recommended in patients with Child A cirrhosis without portal hypertension.World Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2013; 19(41):7129-37. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background and objective Prophylactic intraperitoneal drainage is usually indwelled after abdominal operation. This study assessed whether prophylactic intraperitoneal drainage was of value after pancreatic resection. Methods A systematic literature search was performed to identify relevant articles. Data aggregation and analysis were performed using RevMan 5.0 software package. Results A randomized controlled trial and seven observational cohort studies including a total of 2690 patients were eligible. The overall and major complication rates and the occurrence of pancreatic fistula in patients with drainage were higher than those without drainage. Prophylactic intraperitoneal drainage was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in the need for percutaneous drainage, reoperation and readmission, nor with an increase in mortality. Conclusion The present meta-analysis demonstrated that prophylactic intraperitoneal drainage after pancreatic resection appears to be unable to improve the postoperative course, and may be associated with more severe and higher rate of complication and increased pancreatic fistula occurrence. There is a serious bias in the criteria to insert drain or not in these retrospective studies. Therefore these results should be confirmed by randomized controlled trial.Pancreatology 01/2014; · 2.04 Impact Factor