Clinicopathologic characteristics of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: Results of an analysis of 530 cases from a single institution

Section of Anatomic Pathology, Department of Oncological and Surgical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.89). 08/2008; 113(7):1511-20. DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23811
Source: PubMed


Although invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most common histotype of breast cancer, the prognostic implications of its clinicopathologic characteristics remain controversial.
The authors undertook a retrospective analysis of a large series of cases treated and followed at a single institution, with the objective of assessing the prognostic/predictive value of distinct clinicopathologic features of the tumors, after revision of the original histopathologic preparations and statistical analyses.
Overall, 530 patients with pure ILC (57% with the classic type; 19% with the alveolar type; 11% with the solid type; and the remaining 13% characterized by pleomorphic, signet ring cell, histiocytoid, or apocrine features) were included in the study. Tumor size, lymph node metastatic involvement, and hormonal status were confirmed to be significant prognostic factors. In addition, statistically significant correlations were demonstrated between the 'classic' histotype of ILC and a lower risk of axillary lymph node metastases (P = .0005), a reduced number of metastatic lymph nodes (P = .04), and lower tumor grade (P < .0001). Patients with ILC of the 'nonclassic' subtype demonstrated significantly increased breast-related events (hazards ratio of 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-3.10) and a trend toward reduced disease-free survival and overall survival.
The results of the current study confirm the clinical usefulness of several traditional clinicopathologic features of ILC as prognostic parameters but also emphasize the prognostic role of the histopathologic subtyping of these tumors, documenting the more favorable outcome of the classic subtype of ILC.

Download full-text


Available from: Giuseppe Viale, Oct 05, 2014
  • Source
    • "Ki67 was a significant prognostic factor in univariable analysis but did not reach significance after adjustment for adjuvant treatment and other known prognostic factors. In an earlier ILC-study with a shorter follow-up time (7 years), no significant prognostic effect of Ki67 on overall survival could be detected (Orvieto et al. 2008) and to our knowledge there is, to date, no other comparable study, investigating the long-term prognostic effect of Ki67 in ILC. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term impact of prognostic factors in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast, with a primary focus on Ki67 and histological grade, alone and in combination with estrogen receptor (ER). One hundred and ninety two well-characterised patients with ILC were included in the study. Ki67, histological grade and ER were evaluated and combined into a prognostic index (KiGE). All grade 1 tumours and ER-positive (ER+) grade 2 tumours with Ki67 ≤ 30% were classified as low-KiGE and all the others as high-KiGE. Overall, 31% of the patients have died from breast cancer. The median follow-up of the patients still alive was 21 years. Age, tumour size, axillary lymph node status (nodal status), histological grade, Ki67 and KiGE were significant prognostic factors for breast cancer mortality (BCM) in univariable analysis. In a multivariable model, adjusted for adjuvant treatment, age and progesterone receptor (PgR), the strongest prognostic factors for BCM were: Nodal status (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.4-6.1), KiGE (HR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6), and tumour size (HR = 1.9, 95% CI: 0.98-3.8). By combining these three factors, 37% of the ILC's could be further divided into a low-risk group, consisting of node negative small (≤ 20 mm) low-KiGE tumours, with a BCM of 5% (95% CI: 1-13%) at 10 years and 12% (95% CI: 5-22%) at 20 years follow-up. None of these patients recieved chemotherapy and only 2 recieved endocrine treatment with tamoxifen. The combination of Ki67, histological grade and ER into KiGE, together with tumour size and nodal status make it possible to identify a large group of ILC patients with such a good long-term prognosis that chemotherapy can be safely avoided and exclusion of endocrine therapy considered.
    SpringerPlus 02/2014; 3(1):70. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-3-70
  • Source
    • "As described above, ILC tumors are often larger in size and more often multifocal/multicentric and bilateral versus IDC, which has led to increased rates of mastectomy and contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) for ILC patients [15] [26] [34] [35]. Defining the extent of disease for ILC patients and direct locoregional management often includes the use of preoperative MRI. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast (ILC) represents 10-15% of all newly diagnosed breast cancers, affecting ∼30,000 women annually in the United States. However, ILC is critically understudied as a breast cancer subtype. Though the vast majority of ILC are estrogen receptor-positive and present with overall favorable biomarkers, ILC patients do not benefit from improved outcomes versus other breast cancer patients. Patient outcomes, in particular in response to endocrine therapies, are not well understood in ILC, due in large part to the lack of prospective identification in large clinical trials. Further, there is a lack of laboratory models to study cell signaling, hormone response, and endocrine resistance in ILC. In this review, we provide an overview of clinicopathological features of ILC tumors, discuss issues with clinical management, and highlight the disconnect between ILC biomarkers and patient outcomes. We review currently available data on ILC patient outcomes, with a focus on response to endocrine therapy. Additionally, we describe currently available laboratory models for understanding hormone response in ILC cells, and review current data on these model systems. The promise for new insight in to ILC, based on extensive representation of the disease in recent large scale genomic studies, is also discussed. Increasing understanding of endocrine response in ILC represents a critical area for future research to improve patient outcomes for this understudied breast cancer subtype.
    Steroids 11/2012; 78(6). DOI:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.11.002 · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Most studies have found that IPLCs are usually large at the time of diagnosis [5,7,8,12,17]. The mean IPLC tumor size in our study was 3.2±1.8 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Invasive pleomorphic lobular carcinoma (IPLC) is a very rare and distinct morphological variant of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), characterized by nuclear atypia and pleomorphism contrasted with the cytologic uniformity of ILC. This study evaluated clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of IPLC compared with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 35 patients with IPLC and 6,184 patients with IDC, not otherwise specified. We compared the clinicopathologic characteristics, relapse-free survival (RFS) and disease specific survival (DSS) of patients who were surgically treated between January 1997 and December 2010. Patients with IPLC presented at an older age with larger tumor size, worse histologic grade, higher rates of N3 stage, more multifocal/multicentric tumors, and more nipple-areolar complex involvement than those of patients with IDC. During the follow-up period, the IPLC group experienced five cases (14.3%) of disease recurrence and three cases (8.6%) of disease specific mortality compared with 637 cases (10.4%) of recurrence and 333 cases (5.4%) of disease specific mortality in the IDC group. Univariate analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method revealed that the IPLC group showed a significantly poorer prognosis than that of the IDC group (RFS, p=0.008; DSS, p<0.001). However, after adjusting for clinicopathologic factors, a multivariate analysis showed no statistical differences in RFS (p=0.396) and DSS (p=0.168) between the IPLC and the IDC groups. Our data suggest that patients with IPLC present with poor prognostic factors such as large tumor size, poor histologic grade and advanced stage at diagnosis. These aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics may result in poor clinical outcomes. Although our study could not link IPLC histology to poor prognosis, considering the aggressive characteristics of IPLC, early detection and considerate treatment, including proper surgical and adjuvant intervention, could be helpful for disease progression and survival.
    09/2012; 15(3):313-9. DOI:10.4048/jbc.2012.15.3.313
Show more