Article

DAT genotype modulates brain and behavioral responses elicited by cigarette cues.

Department of Psychiatry, Addiction Treatment Research Center, University of Pennsylvania and Philadelphia VA Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 7.83). 08/2008; 34(3):717-28. DOI: 10.1038/npp.2008.124
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We previously demonstrated differential activation of the mesocorticolimbic reward circuitry in response to cigarette cues independent of withdrawal. Despite robust effects, we noted considerable individual variability in brain and subjective responses. As dopamine (DA) is critical for reward and its predictive signals, genetically driven variation in DA transmission may account for the observed differences. Evidence suggests that a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) polymorphism in the DA transporter (DAT) SLC6A3 gene may influence DA transport. Brain and behavioral responses may be enhanced in probands carrying the 9-repeat allele. To test this hypothesis, perfusion fMR images were acquired during cue exposure in 19 smokers genotyped for the 40 bp VNTR polymorphism in the SLC6A3 gene. Contrasts between groups revealed that 9-repeat (9-repeats) had a greater response to smoking (vs nonsmoking) cues than smokers homozygous for the 10-repeat allele (10/10-repeats) bilaterally in the interconnected ventral striatal/pallidal/orbitofrontal cortex regions (VS/VP/OFC). Activity was increased in 9-repeats and decreased in 10/10-repeats in the VS/VP/OFC (p<0.001 for all analyses). Brain activity and craving was strongly correlated in 10/10-repeats in these regions and others (anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus, and insula; r(2)=0.79-0.86, p<0.001 in all regions). Alternatively, there were no significant correlations between brain and behavior in 9-repeats. There were no differences in cigarette dependence, demographics, or resting baseline neural activity between groups. These results provide evidence that genetic variation in the DAT gene contributes to the neural and behavioral responses elicited by smoking cues.

Full-text

Available from: Charles P O'Brien, Jun 09, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
205 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify gene variants of DAT1 (SLC6A3) that modulate subjective responses to acute cocaine exposure. Non-treatment-seeking volunteers (n=66) with cocaine use disorders received a single bolus infusion of saline and cocaine (40 mg, intravenous) in a randomized order. Subjective effects were assessed with visual analog scales administered before (-15 min) and up to 20 min after infusion. Ratings of subjective effects were normalized to baseline, and saline infusion values were subtracted. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. DNA from the participants was genotyped for the DAT1 intron 8 (rs3836790) and 3'-untranslated region (rs28363170) variable number of tandem repeats. Participants were mostly male (∼80%) and African American (∼70%). No differences were found among drug use variables between groups for either polymorphism. Carriers of the 9-allele of the DAT1 3'-untranslated region (9,9 and 9,10) exhibited greater responses to cocaine for 'high', 'any drug effect', 'anxious', and 'stimulated' (all P-values<0.001) compared with individuals homozygous for the 10-allele. For the intron 8 polymorphism, individuals homozygous for the 6-allele exhibited greater responses for 'anxious' compared with carriers of the 5-allele (P<0.001). Individuals possessing the genotype pattern of 10,10 and at least one 5-allele reported lower responses to 'good effects', 'bad effects', 'depressed', and 'anxious' (all P-values<0.01). The data presented here show for the first time support for the hypothesis that genetic differences in DAT1 contribute to the variation in subjective responses to cocaine among participants with cocaine use disorders.
    Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 04/2015; 25(6). DOI:10.1097/FPC.0000000000000137 · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Addiction 02/2015; 110(2):204-5. DOI:10.1111/add.12707 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Functional neuroimaging has become an increasingly common tool for studying drug craving. Furthermore, functional neuroimaging studies, which have addressed an incredibly diverse array of questions regarding the nature and treatment of craving, have had a substantial impact on theoretical models of addiction. Here, we offer three points related to this sizeable and influential body of research. First, we assert that the craving most investigators seek to study represents not just a desire but a strong desire to use drugs, consistent with prominent theoretical and clinical descriptions of craving. Secondly, we highlight that, despite the clear conceptual and clinical emphasis on craving as an intense desire, brain imaging studies often have been designed explicitly in a way that reduces the ability to generate powerful cravings. We illustrate this point by reviewing the peak urge levels endorsed by participants in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of cigarette craving in nicotine-deprived versus non-deprived smokers. Thirdly, we suggest that brain responses measured during mild states of desire (such as following satiety) differ in fundamental ways from those measured during states of overpowering desire (i.e. craving) to use drugs. We support this position by way of a meta-analysis revealing that fMRI cue exposure studies using nicotine-deprived smokers have produced different patterns of brain activation to those using non-deprived smokers. Regarding brain imaging studies of craving, intensity of the urges matter, and more explicit attention to urge intensity in future work has the potential to yield valuable information about the nature of craving.
    Addiction 08/2014; 110(2). DOI:10.1111/add.12676 · 4.60 Impact Factor