Structures of viscotoxins A1 and B2 from European mistletoe solved using native data alone.
ABSTRACT Crystals of the cytotoxic thionin proteins viscotoxins A1 and B2 extracted from mistletoe diffracted to high resolution (1.25 and 1.05 A, respectively) and are excellent candidates for testing crystallographic methods. Ab initio direct methods were only successful in solving the viscotoxin B2 structure, which with 861 unique non-H atoms is one of the largest unknown structures without an atom heavier than sulfur to be solved in this way, but sulfur-SAD phasing provided a convincing solution for viscotoxin A1. Both proteins form dimers in the crystal and viscotoxin B2 (net charge +4 per monomer), but not viscotoxin A1 (net charge +6), is coordinated by sulfate or phosphate anions. The viscotoxin A1 crystal has a higher solvent content than the viscotoxin B2 crystal (49% as opposed to 28%) with solvent channels along the crystallographic 4(3) axes.
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ABSTRACT: The new program ANODE estimates anomalous or heavy-atom density by reversing the usual procedure for experimental phase determination by methods such as single- and multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction and single isomorphous replacement anomalous scattering. Instead of adding a phase shift to the heavy-atom phases to obtain a starting value for the native protein phase, this phase shift is subtracted from the native phase to obtain the heavy-atom substructure phase. The required native phase is calculated from the information in a Protein Data Bank file of the structure. The resulting density enables even very weak anomalous scatterers such as sulfur to be located. Potential applications include the identification of unknown atoms and the validation of molecular replacement solutions.Journal of Applied Crystallography 12/2011; 44(Pt 6):1285-1287. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With the development of highly brilliant and extremely intense synchrotron X-ray sources, extreme high-resolution limits for biological samples are now becoming attainable. Here, a study is presented that sets the record in crystallographic resolution for a biological macromolecule. The structure of the small protein crambin was determined to 0.48 Å resolution on the PETRA II ring before its conversion to a dedicated synchrotron-radiation source. The results reveal a wealth of details in electron density and demonstrate the possibilities that are potentially offered by a high-energy source. The question now arises as to what the true limits are in terms of what can be seen at such high resolution. From what can be extrapolated from the results using crystals of crambin, this limit would be at approximately 0.40 Å, which approaches that for smaller compounds.Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 04/2011; 67(Pt 4):424-8. · 0.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: De novo zinc single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (Zn-SAD) phasing has been demonstrated with the 1.9 Å resolution data of glucose isomerase and 2.6 Å resolution data of Staphylococcus aureus Fur (SaFur) collected using in-house Cu Kα X-ray source. The successful in-house Zn-SAD phasing of glucose isomerase, based on the anomalous signals of both zinc ions introduced to crystals by soaking and native sulfur atoms, drove us to determine the structure of SaFur, a zinc-containing transcription factor, by Zn-SAD phasing using in-house X-ray source. The abundance of zinc-containing proteins in nature, the easy zinc derivatization of the protein surface, no need of synchrotron access, and the successful experimental phasing with the modest 2.6 Å resolution SAD data indicate that inhouse Zn-SAD phasing can be widely applicable to structure determination.Molecules and Cells 05/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor