We have recently demonstrated an increase in recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) secretion from BHK-21 cells (rBHK-21(host)) following an over-expression of the chaperone protein heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) (rBHK-21(Hsp70)) due to an inhibition of apoptotic cell death and an increased cellular expression of rFVIII [Ishaque, A., Thrift, J., Murphy, J.E., Konstantin, K., 2007. Over-expression of Hsp70 in BHK-21 cells engineered to produce recombinant factor VIII promotes resistance to apoptosis and enhances secretion. Biotechnol. Bioeng. Biotech. Bioeng. 97, 144-155]. In the present study we investigated the difference in adherence of rFVIII to the cell membrane surface by comparing changes in cell viability and extent of phosphatidylersine (PS) exposure in apoptosis between rBHK-21(host), rBHK-21(Hsp70), and parental BHK-21 cells devoid of rFVIII expression (BHK-21(native)) during batch cell culture experiments. The Zenon technique was used to double stain for cell surface and intracellular rFVIII using flow cytometric Guava PCA analysis. By this quantitative analysis intracellular rFVIII was shown to decrease in rBHK-21(host) cells as the cell viability declined while the rFVIII cell surface staining increased. Conversely, rBHK-21(Hsp70) cell cultures displayed higher cell viability and intracellular rFVIII with less cell surface rFVIII staining. Time dependent increases of rFVIII adherence to the surface of rBHK-21(host) cells and its reduction on the surface of rBHK-21(Hsp70) cells was also confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, greater rFVIII cell surface staining correlated with an increase in detectable PS exposure on the surface of BHK-21(native) batch cell cultures. However, PS exposure could not be identified to the same extent on rBHK-21(host) cells despite a similar decline in cell viability between rBHK-21(host) and BHK-21(native) batch cultures. Any exposed PS on rBHK-21(host) cells was most likely masked by secreted rFVIII, mimicking the effect on activated platelets where the externalization of PS also occurs, and serves as a ligand for FVIII activation in the blood coagulation cascade. Taken together we have identified that rFVIII sequestration on the membrane surface is another potential limitation to rFVIII productivity and one which can also be alleviated by reduction of apoptosis in a clone expressing human HSP70.
"This prompted the authors to speculate that secreted rFVIII, by virtue of its phosphatidylserine (PS) binding properties, would be able to shield PS binding sites and thereby block Annexin V binding. It was subsequently shown by FACS analysis, that non-engineered host cells indeed bound more rFVIII than engineered cells (Ishaque et al., 2008), indicating a higher level of apoptosis in the host cells and a resulting increase in PS exposure. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Factor VIII (FVIII) is an important protein in the blood coagulation cascade and dysfunction or deficiency of FVIII causes haemophilia A. Replacement therapy with exogenous recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) works as a substitute for the missing or non-functioning FVIII. The rFVIII protein has been engineered extensively throughout the years to increase the low production yields that initially were obtained from mammalian cell cultures. The scope of this work was to investigate the interaction of rFVIII with the cell membrane surface of the producing cells in serum free medium. We wondered whether binding of rFVIII to the cell membrane could be a factor diminishing the production yield. We studied the contribution of the rFVIII B-domain to membrane attachment by transfecting several constructs containing increasing lengths of the B-domain into cells under serum free conditions. We found that 90% of rFVIII is attached to the cell membrane of the producing cell when the rFVIII variant contains a short B-domain (21aa). By increasing the length of the B-domain the membrane attached fraction can be reduced to 50% of the total expressed rFVIII. Further, our studies show that the N-linked glycosylations within the B-domain have no influence on either total expression level or membrane attachment properties.
Journal of Biotechnology 05/2010; 147(3-4):198-204. DOI:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2010.04.010 · 2.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article describes a cell banking process for rBHK cell lines in 100-mL cryobags. As the use of larger volume cell banks requires greater cell numbers and longer preparation time, extensive characterization of key process parameters beyond the conventional ranges was performed to support a cGMP banking process. All experiments were conducted using two recombinant BHK21 cell lines, one of them cotransfected with Hsp70. The results show that the entire cell banking process for these BHK cell lines can be performed at room temperature. A DMSO exposure time up to 5 h either directly in a bioreactor or in shaker flasks did not result in any significant negative effect after cell thaw, when the cryocontainers were frozen immediately after filling. Extensive characterization did not indicate any significant apoptotic effects after thaw. However, the Hsp70 cotransfected cell line did show a slightly better protection from potential cryopreservation-induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, it was found that cells transferred into cryobags showed a low recovery rate after thaw if the incubation time exceeded 1.5 h before freezing. Additional experiments confirmed that the DMSO exposure time inside the cryocontainer in contrast to the DMSO exposure in a reactor or shaker flasks is much more critical. The cryobag cell banking process should therefore be performed within a 1(1/2)-2 h window; a banking process for vials should not exceed 2(1/2) h.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vivo, clotting Factor VIII (FVIII) circulates in plasma bound to von Willebrand factor (vWF), and the vWF:FVIII complex prevents binding of FVIII to phosphatidylserine (PS). Activation of FVIII by thrombin releases FVIII from vWF, and subsequently FVIII binds to PS exposed on activated platelets and forms the tenase complex together with clotting Factor IX. In vitro, during serum free production of recombinant FVIII (rFVIII), production cells also expose PS, and since vWF is not present to hinder interaction of secreted rFVIII with PS, rFVIII is partly associated with the cell membrane of the production cells. Recently, we showed that as much as 90% of secreted rFVIII is bound to transiently transfected production cells during serum free conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of including vWF in the serum free medium, and demonstrate that addition of vWF results in release of active membrane bound rFVIII to the culture medium. Moreover, the attachment of rFVIII to cell membranes of un-transfected HEK293 cells was studied in the presence of compounds that competes for interactions between rFVIII and PS. Competitive assays between iodinated rFVIII (¹²⁵I-rFVIII) and annexin V or ortho-phospho-L-serine (OPLS) demonstrated that annexin V and OPLS were able to reduce the membrane bound fraction of rFVIII by 70% and 30%, respectively. Finally, adding OPLS to CHO cells stably expressing FVIII increased the yield by 50%. Using this new knowledge, the recovery of rFVIII could be increased considerably during serum free production of this therapeutic protein.
Journal of Biotechnology 02/2011; 151(4):357-62. DOI:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2010.12.019 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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