Synaptic transmission and short-term plasticity at the calyx of Held synapse revealed by multielectrode array recordings.
ABSTRACT We assessed the potential of using multielectrode arrays (MEAs) to investigate several physiological properties of the calyx of Held synapse in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body of gerbil. Due to the large size of the synapse, it became widely employed in studies on synaptic mechanisms. Electrical stimulation at the midline evoked a characteristic compound signal consisting of a presynaptic volley (C(1)) and a postsynaptic response (C(2)). The C(1) was blocked by tetrodotoxin, whilst the C(2) was blocked by perfusion of low Ca(2+) external solution, or the AMPA-R antagonists CNQX, and GYKI52466. NMDA-R blocker D-AP5, partially inhibited the postsynaptic response at P12, but showed no effect in P30 animals. The inhibitory effects of GABA or glycine on postsynaptic responses were reciprocal with regard to animal's maturity: GABA caused a pronounced reduction of C(2) amplitude in P20-22 animals, while glycine showed a stronger inhibition in P27-28 animals. Low-frequency super-threshold stimulation of the afferents induced facilitation of the postsynaptic C(2) amplitudes and only minor changes in temporal characteristics of the signals. At stimulation frequencies >200 Hz, however, significant depression occurs accompanied by increases in transmission delay and in the width of the postsynaptic response. This study suggests MEAs as a useful tool to study calyx of Held synapse by simultaneous recordings of pre- and postsynaptic elements of synaptically interconnected neurons in the auditory brainstem. Moreover, MEAs enable convenient analysis of activity-dependent depression and modulation of neuronal activity by glycine and GABA at later developmental stages not accessible to patch recordings.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Beatrice Dietz, Aug 14, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: Eckhard Friauf
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- "It was also demonstrated that the replenishment of the RRP highly depends on the recent history of synaptic activity, with high-frequency stimulation significantly enhancing the rate of replenishment. Subsequent analyses confirmed the frequency dependence of STD (e.g., Wong et al. 2003; Haustein et al. 2008; Lorteije et al. 2009). It became clear that depletion of the RRP is not the only mechanism underlying STD at the giant calyceal synapses in the MNTB. "
ABSTRACT: Synaptic transmission via chemical synapses is dynamic, i.e., the strength of postsynaptic responses may change considerably in response to repeated synaptic activation. Synaptic strength is increased during facilitation, augmentation and potentiation, whereas a decrease in synaptic strength is characteristic for depression and attenuation. This review attempts to discuss the literature on short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity in the auditory brainstem of mammals and birds. One hallmark of the auditory system, particularly the inner ear and lower brainstem stations, is information transfer through neurons that fire action potentials at very high frequency, thereby activating synapses >500 times per second. Some auditory synapses display morphological specializations of the presynaptic terminals, e.g., calyceal extensions, whereas other auditory synapses do not. The review focuses on short-term depression and short-term facilitation, i.e., plastic changes with durations in the millisecond range. Other types of short-term synaptic plasticity, e.g., posttetanic potentiation and depolarization-induced suppression of excitation, will be discussed much more briefly. The same holds true for subtypes of long-term plasticity, like prolonged depolarizations and spike-time-dependent plasticity. We also address forms of plasticity in the auditory brainstem that do not comprise synaptic plasticity in a strict sense, namely short-term suppression, paired tone facilitation, short-term adaptation, synaptic adaptation and neural adaptation. Finally, we perform a meta-analysis of 61 studies in which short-term depression (STD) in the auditory system is opposed to short-term depression at non-auditory synapses in order to compare high-frequency neurons with those that fire action potentials at a lower rate. This meta-analysis reveals considerably less STD in most auditory synapses than in non-auditory ones, enabling reliable, failure-free synaptic transmission even at frequencies >100 Hz. Surprisingly, the calyx of Held, arguably the best-investigated synapse in the central nervous system, depresses most robustly. It will be exciting to reveal the molecular mechanisms that set high-fidelity synapses apart from other synapses that function much less reliably.Cell and Tissue Research 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00441-015-2176-x
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- "Two animals which received saline instead of sulfadimethoxine showed no change in ABR response (data not shown). Extracellular MEA recordings from brainstem slices in vitro (Fig. 1C) showed a characteristic presynaptic conducted waveform on stimulation of the trapezoid body (C 1 ) and a postsynaptic component (C 2 ) (Haustein et al. 2008). In treated rats the C 2 component was absent or vastly reduced (control −186.4 ± 18.7 μV, n = 52; vs. treated −32.1 ± 3.2 μV, n = 55; P < 0.001, Mann–Whitney-Rank-Sum test) as shown by the C 2 /C 1 ratio for both conditions (Fig. 1D; P < 0.001). "
ABSTRACT: There is a well-established link between hyperbilirubinaemia and hearing loss in paediatrics, but the cellular mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here we used the Gunn rat model of hyperbilirubinaemia to investigate bilirubin-induced hearing loss. In vivo auditory brainstem responses revealed that Gunn rats have severe auditory deficits within 18 h of exposure to high bilirubin levels. Using an in vitro preparation of the auditory brainstem from these rats, extracellular multi-electrode array recording from the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) showed longer latency and decreased amplitude of evoked field potentials following bilirubin exposure, suggestive of transmission failure at this synaptic relay. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings confirmed that the electrophysiological properties of the postsynaptic MNTB neurons were unaffected by bilirubin, with no change in action potential waveforms or current-voltage relationships. However, stimulation of the trapezoid body was unable to elicit large calyceal EPSCs in MNTB neurons of hyperbilirubinaemic rats, indicative of damage at a presynaptic site. Multi-photon imaging of anterograde-labelled calyceal projections revealed axonal staining and presynaptic profiles around MNTB principal neuron somata. Following induction of hyperbilirubinaemia the giant synapses were largely destroyed. Electron microscopy confirmed loss of presynaptic calyceal terminals and supported the electrophysiological evidence for healthy postsynaptic neurons. MNTB neurons express high levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Nitric oxide has been implicated in mechanisms of bilirubin toxicity elsewhere in the brain, and antagonism of nNOS by 7-nitroindazole protected hearing during bilirubin exposure. We conclude that bilirubin-induced deafness is caused by degeneration of excitatory synaptic terminals in the auditory brainstem.The Journal of Physiology 10/2010; 588(Pt 23):4683-93. DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2010.199778
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- "Lorteije et al. (2009) also used simultaneous extra-and intracellular recordings to address a similar question at the calyx of Held in the MNTB. Guinan & Li (1990) and Haustein et al. (2008) have previously shown that the extracellular recording reflects both preand postsynaptic activity. Lorteije et al. (2009) concluded that the postsynaptic activity is composed of the EPSP and AP activity, which is similar to our results in the AVCN. "
ABSTRACT: Extracellular signals from the endbulb of Held-spherical bushy cell (SBC) synapse exhibit up to three component waves ('P', 'A' and 'B'). Signals lacking the third component (B) are frequently observed but as the origin of each of the components is uncertain, interpretation of this lack of B has been controversial: is it a failure to release transmitter or a failure to generate or propagate an action potential? Our aim was to determine the origin of each component. We combined single- and multiunit in vitro methods in Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats and used pharmacological tools to modulate glutamate receptors or voltage-gated sodium channels. Simultaneous extra- and intracellular recordings from single SBCs demonstrated a presynaptic origin of the P-component, consistent with data obtained with multielectrode array recordings of local field potentials. The later components (A and B) correspond to the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and action potential of the SBC, respectively. These results allow a clear interpretation of in vivo extracellular signals. We conclude that action potential failures occurring at the endbulb-SBC synaptic junction largely reflect failures of the EPSP to trigger an action potential and not failures of synaptic transmission. The data provide the basis for future investigation of convergence of excitatory and inhibitory inputs in modulating transmission at a fully functional neuronal system using physiological stimulation.European Journal of Neuroscience 05/2010; 31(9):1574-81. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2010.07188.x