Harm avoidance and self-directedness as essential features of panic disorder patients.

Anxiety Disorder Program, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre and Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Comprehensive psychiatry (Impact Factor: 2.26). 09/2008; 49(5):476-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2008.03.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to compare the personality traits assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) between patients with panic disorder (PD) and a control group in a Brazilian sample.
One hundred thirty-five patients with PD paired according to sex and age with 135 controls without any psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a structured interview. Temperament and character were assessed with the TCI.
Consistently, patients with PD presented higher scores on the harm avoidance (HA) temperament scale (23.20 +/- 5.41 vs 15.21 +/- 4.92; P < .001) and lower scores on the self-directedness (SD) (27.81 +/- 7.25 vs 35.16 +/- 5.47; P < .001) if compared to the control group and has been associated independently from other TCI scales and confounders with PD. The multivariate logistic model containing HA and SD explains 38.6% to 51.4% of the differences between PD and controls.
Harm avoidance could be a good candidate to be heritable because it appears to be a consistent finding across current literature in anxious and depressed patients independent of their cultural context. Also, SD seems to be a key character characteristic of PD patients. The dimensional assessment is an interesting alternative for understanding the relationship between the psychobiologic bases of temperament and character and is highly related to the development of psychiatric syndromes.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aims of the present study were to explore whether symptoms in different anxiety disorders are associated with Cloninger's model temperament dimensions novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence and persistence compared with control subjects in clinical samples of adults or late adolescents. Method: Literature search in the following databases: Cochrane Library, PubMed (Medline), Web of Science, Psycinfo and PsycArticles. Systematic review, grading the level of evidence and meta-analysis for each disorder by comparing the temperament dimension scores between patient and control samples in single studies. Results: A total of 40 papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were conducted on a total of 24 studies focusing on panic disorder (PD), social anxiety disorder (SAD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The primary finding was a constant and clinically marked positive association between the HA temperament dimension and symptoms of PD, SAD and OCD, with a most marked effect in SAD, and a moderate effect in OCD and PD. Second, less marked and clinically marginal associations between NS score and SAD and OCD (negative associations), but no associations with PD were observed. The meta-analyses revealed heterogeneity between the results of individual studies, especially in the analyses including SAD and OCD. Conclusions: PD, SAD and OCD share a marked and state-dependent avoidant behavioral pattern, which is common for all anxiety disorders. However, PD showed a different pattern of arousal to novel stimuli from that of SAD and OCD. The findings are state dependent and based on cross-sectional studies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Neuropsychobiology 05/2014; 69(3):175. DOI:10.1159/000360738 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives : The purpose of this study is to examine the general personality profiles of patients who visited an oriental neuropsychiatric clinic and to investigate the specific profiles of patients diagnosed with Hwa-byung. Methods : We analyzed the profiles of 122 patients who completed TCI-RS questionnaire for the purpose of counseling. Patients were divided by sex, age and diagnosis related groups. Scales and subscales of each group were compared by an independent t-test and ANCOVA with SPSS windows 16.0. Types of temperament and character were classified by percentile ranks of the total patients and diagnosis related groups. Results : 1. Total patients were classified as the high harm avoidance type of temperament and of low self-directedness type of character. 2. Male patients showed significantly higher scores on NS, all subscales of NS, P2 and P3 than female patients. HA4 and C5 scores were significantly higher in the female group. Younger patients showed significantly higher scores on NS, all subscales of NS, HA1 and P3. However, older patients had significantly higher scores on SD4, SD5, ST2 and ST3. 3. Between diagnosis related groups, Hwa-byung group had significantly higher scores on RD, ST, SD3 and ST2. However P3 score of non-hwa-byung patients was higher than hwa-byung patients. In typical classification, both hwa-byung and non-hwa-byung groups were classified as the same types as total patients. Conclusions : This study showed that the patients visited an oriental neuropsychiatric clinic and had similar personality with that of general psychiatric disorders. Hwa-byung patients exhibited higher RD and ST scores than other disorders, but they had no typical differences.
    12/2012; 23(4). DOI:10.7231/jon.2012.23.4.107


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Jun 3, 2014