Separation and quantification of neoagaro- and agaro-oligosaccharide products generated from agarose digestion by beta-agarase and HCl in liquid chromatography systems.
ABSTRACT A series of neoagaro-oligosaccharides (NAOS) were separated and isolated by beta-agarase digestion and agaro-oligosaccharides (AOS) by HCl hydrolysis from agarose with defined quantity and degree of polymerization (DP). Profiles of the oligomer length in the crude product mixtures were monitored by two high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems: size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and NH2-column chromatography (NH2-HPLC), coupled with an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD). Calibration curves were established separately to identify the DP and quantify the amount of the oligomer products analyzed in the two systems. Each system was optimized to generate a spectrum of saccharide oligomers with various DP, where the reaction yield for NAOS was 52.7% by 4U/mg beta-agarase and for AOS was 45.6% by 0.4M HCl. SEC resolved the product in size ranges consisting of DP 1-22 for NAOS and DP 1-14 for AOS. NH2-HPLC clearly resolved both distinct saccharide product sizes within DP 12. The optimized system was connected with a fraction collector to isolate and quantify these individually separated products. The total product yields of the recovered NAOS of DP 1-22 and AOS of DP 1-14 by the SEC system were 84.7% and 82.9%, respectively. NH2-HPLC recovered NAOS and AOS, both with a DP of 1-10 with total product yields of 48.9% and 90.0%, respectively. Isolated NAOS and AOS product fractions were inspected by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and ESIMS spectrometry to confirm structure, molecular mass, and purity. This study established feasible systems for the preparation and qualitative and quantitative measurements, as well as for the isolation of various sizes of oligomers generated from agarose.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Agarose is hydrolyzed easily to yield oligosaccharides, designated as agaro-oligosaccharides (AGOs). Recently, it has been demonstrated that AGOs induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in macrophages and that they might lead to anti-inflammatory property. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of AGO-mediated HO-1 induction remains unknown, as does AGOs' ability to elicit anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. This study was undertaken to uncover the mechanism of AGO-mediated HO-1 induction and to investigate the therapeutic effect of AGOs on intestinal inflammation. METHODS: Mice were treated with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) to induce colitis. The respective degrees of mucosal injury of mice that had received AGO and control mice were compared. We investigated HO-1 expression using Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was measured using qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: AGO administration induced HO-1 expression in colonic mucosa. The induction was observed mainly in F4/80 positive macrophages. Increased colonic damage and myeloperoxidase activity after TNBS treatment were inhibited by AGO administration. TNBS treatment induced TNF-α expression, and AGO administration suppressed induction. However, HO inhibitor canceled AGO-mediated amelioration of colitis. In RAW264 cells, AGOs enhanced HO-1 expression time-dependently and concentration-dependently and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α expression. Furthermore, agarotetraose-mediated HO-1 induction required NF-E2-related factor 2 function and phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase. CONCLUSIONS: We infer that AGO administration inhibits TNBS-induced colitis in mice through HO-1 induction in macrophages. Consequently, oral administration of AGOs might be an important therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel disease.Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2012; · 3.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oligosaccharides were obtained from agar by enzymatic hydrolysis. Activated carbon adsorption separation was used to extract oligosaccharides, and gel chromatography separation was applied to further purify oligosaccharides. The result showed that activated carbon adsorption could remove the most salt impurities, and gel column chromatography could give the separation of the two kinds of oligosaccharides. ESI-MS, 13C-NMR revealed that the molecular weight (Mw) of two oligosaccharides were 630 and 936, which were identified as neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose respectively.Journal of Food Science and Technology -Mysore- 12/2013; · 1.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: β-agarase activity was monitored by traditional reducing sugar content methods: Somogyi-Nelson's arsenomolybdate, Miller's dinitrosalicylic acid and Kidby and Davidson's ferricyanide methods, as well as by high-performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with a refractive index detector and an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD). Calibration curves were established separately for each method to measure the amounts of the neoagaro-oligosaccharides (NAOS) in the reaction mixtures, which are the products from 1-10 units (U) of β-agarase cleavage activity on agarose. Product quantities from each monitoring method were compared with the isolated NAOS products. The graphs plotted by agarase activity unit and product concentration clearly displayed that the ELSD method closely followed the results of the isolated products. The percentage deviation of results measured by the five methods away from those of the isolated NAOS product mixture amounted to -13.1-35.1, -21.1-25.5, -27.1-23.81, 6.1-24.3 and 16.2-22.8%, respectively. When the loss during product isolation, about 15-17%, was taken into account, the high precision of the ELSD method was confirmed. HPSEC-ELSD methods also accurately measured the enzyme kinetics as well as enabling partial identification of oligosaccharides assembled in the NAOS product mixture. This study established the HPSEC-ELSD system as an alternative method for monitoring agarase activity.Biomedical Chromatography 05/2011; 25(5):570-8. · 1.95 Impact Factor