Ambulatory polysomnography for the assessment of sleep bruxism.
ABSTRACT Ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) is introduced as a new method for assessing sleep bruxism. Nocturnal recordings of masseter electromyography (EMG), electro-encephalography, electro-oculography, electrocardiography, thoracic effort and body position allow for the detection of typical nocturnal masseter activity as well as the determination of sleep stages. Twelve patients with a clinical diagnosis of bruxism were assessed with the ambulatory PSG, all of them fulfilled diagnostic PSG criteria according to Kato et al. (Dent Clin North Am. 2001; 45: 657-684). Per hour of sleep patients showed 34.2 (+/-10.6) EMG bursts and 5.6 (+/-1.3) sleep bruxism episodes. Because of the ability to determine sleep stages and the application in the home environment the ambulatory PSG represents a cost-saving alternative to sleep laboratory investigations that might be especially useful in field studies and clinical application.
Article: The scoring of movements in sleep.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) has separated sleep-related movement disorders into simple, repetitive movement disorders (such as periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], sleep bruxism, and rhythmic movement disorder) and parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and disorders of partial arousal, e.g., sleep walking, confusional arousals, night terrors). Many of the parasomnias are characterized by complex behaviors in sleep that appear purposeful, goal directed and voluntary but are outside the conscious awareness of the individual and therefore inappropriate. All of the sleep-related movement disorders described here have specific polysomnographic findings. For the purposes of developing and/or revising specifications and polysomnographic scoring rules, the AASM Scoring Manual Task Force on Movements in Sleep reviewed background literature and executed evidence grading of 81 relevant articles obtained by a literature search of published articles between 1966 and 2004. Subsequent evidence grading identified limited evidence for reliability and/or validity for polysomnographic scoring criteria for periodic limb movements in sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep bruxism. Published scoring criteria for rhythmic movement disorder, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation were empirical and based on descriptive studies. The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation. Because of limited or absent evidence for reliability and/or validity, a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 04/2007; 3(2):155-67. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sleep bruxism (SB) is an unusual orofacial movement described as a parafunction in dentistry and as a parasomnia in sleep medicine. Since several peripheral influences could be involved in sleep-wake regulation and the genesis of rhythmic jaw movements, the authors have reviewed the relevant literature to facilitate understanding of mechanisms possibly involved in SB genesis. Various animal and human studies indicate that during either wakefulness or anesthesia, orofacial sensory inputs (e.g., from periodontium, mucosa, and muscle) could influence jaw muscle activity. However, the role of these sensory inputs in jaw motor activity during sleep is unclear. Interestingly, during sleep, the jaw is usually open due to motor suppression; tooth contact most likely occurs in association with sleep arousal. Recent physiologic evidence supports an association between sleep arousal and SB; a sequential change from autonomic (cardiac) and brain cortical activities precede SB-related jaw motor activity. This suggests that the central and/or autonomic nervous systems, rather than peripheral sensory factors, have a dominant role in SB genesis. However, some peripheral sensory factors may exert an influence on SB through their interaction with sleep-wake mechanisms. The intent of this review is to integrate various physiologic concepts in order to better understand the mechanisms underlying the genesis of SB.Journal of orofacial pain 02/2003; 17(3):191-213. · 2.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An accurate, easy-to-use, long-term method other than EMG is needed to monitor bruxism. This article presents pilot data on the reproducibility, validity, and utility of an intrasplint piezoelectric film method. Simulated bruxism behaviors (steady-state and rhythmic clenching, grinding, and tapping) in 5 subjects were recorded with the use of both masseter EMG and an intrasplint piezoelectric film method. Correlation coefficients calculated for simulated bruxism event duration with the use of a masseter EMG or an intrasplint piezoelectric film method were 0.99 for tapping and steady-state clenching, 0.96 for rhythmic clenching, and 0.79 for grinding. Piezoelectric film has its limitations and does not faithfully capture sustained force magnitudes. However, for the target behaviors associated with bruxism (tooth grinding, clenching, and tapping), it appears to faithfully reproduce above-baseline events with durations statistically indistinguishable from those recorded with masseter EMG. Masseter EMG was poorest at detecting a simulated side-to-side grinding behavior.Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 09/2001; 86(2):195-202. · 1.72 Impact Factor