Lithium−Air Battery: Promise and Challenges

Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (Impact Factor: 7.46). 07/2010; 1(14). DOI: 10.1021/jz1005384


The lithium−air system captured worldwide attention in 2009 as a possible battery for electric vehicle propulsion applications. If successfully developed, this battery could provide an energy source for electric vehicles rivaling that of gasoline in terms of usable energy density. However, there are numerous scientific and technical challenges that must be overcome if this alluring promise is to turn into reality. The fundamental battery chemistry during discharge is thought to be the electrochemical oxidation of lithium metal at the anode and reduction of oxygen from air at the cathode. With aprotic electrolytes, as used in Li-ion batteries, there is some evidence that the process can be reversed by applying an external potential, i.e., that such a battery can be electrically recharged. This paper summarizes the authors’ view of the promise and challenges facing development of practical Li−air batteries and the current understanding of its chemistry. However, it must be appreciated that this perspective represents only a snapshot in a very rapidly evolving picture.

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    • "The theoretical energy density of the lithium-air battery is close to 13,000 Wh/kg excluding oxygen and carbon, which is comparable with gasoline (13,200 Wh/kg), and 5.5 kWh/kg if oxygen and carbon are taken into account [9]. The aprotic lithium-air battery consists of Li anode, an electrolyte and porous carbon as cathode, as shown in Fig. 1 [10]. "

    Energy 12/2015; 93:416-420. DOI:10.1016/ · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    • "With the increasingly urgent energy demands of recent years, tremendous efforts have been put into the development of high-performance, low-cost, and environmentally-friendly electrochemical devices for energy storage and conversion, including metal-air batteries and alkaline fuel cells [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]. However, the efficiency and power density of these devices are seriously restricted by the sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) [1,7–10]. "
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    • "Non-aqueous lithium (Li)eoxygen (O 2 ) batteries are exceedingly attractive technologies, with the potential to surpass the capability of current state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries, due to their high theoretical specific energy (11,680 Wh kg À1 ) [1] [2]. To unlock this battery's full potential, however, several technical issues must first be resolved. "
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