Lithium−Air Battery: Promise and Challenges

Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (Impact Factor: 7.46). 07/2010; 1(14). DOI: 10.1021/jz1005384

ABSTRACT The lithium−air system captured worldwide attention in 2009 as a possible battery for electric vehicle propulsion applications. If successfully developed, this battery could provide an energy source for electric vehicles rivaling that of gasoline in terms of usable energy density. However, there are numerous scientific and technical challenges that must be overcome if this alluring promise is to turn into reality. The fundamental battery chemistry during discharge is thought to be the electrochemical oxidation of lithium metal at the anode and reduction of oxygen from air at the cathode. With aprotic electrolytes, as used in Li-ion batteries, there is some evidence that the process can be reversed by applying an external potential, i.e., that such a battery can be electrically recharged. This paper summarizes the authors’ view of the promise and challenges facing development of practical Li−air batteries and the current understanding of its chemistry. However, it must be appreciated that this perspective represents only a snapshot in a very rapidly evolving picture.

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    • "Lithium oxygen batteries have received extensive investigation interest recently due to the extremely high theoretical energy density [1] [2]. Since the first publication of using organic electrolytes by Abraham and Jiang in 1996, lithium oxygen batteries have been widely researched in order to finally achieve practical applications [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Free-standing gel polymer electrolytes with poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) matrix plasticized with tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) were prepared and investigated. The as-prepared gel polymer electrolytes exhibited large operating window and acceptable ionic conductivity. When applied in lithium oxygen batteries, the gel polymer electrolyte could support a high initial discharge capacity of 2988 mAh g À1 when a carbon black electrode without catalyst was used as cathode. Furthermore, the battery with gel polymer electrolyte can last at least 50 cycles in the fixed capacity cycling, displaying an excellent stability. Detailed study reveals that the gelling process is essential for the cycling stability enhancement. With excellent electrochemical properties, the free-standing gel polymer electrolyte presented in this investigation has great application potentials in long-life lithium oxygen batteries. ã
    Electrochimica Acta 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.electacta.2015.03.103 · 4.50 Impact Factor
    • "LieO 2 batteries are considered to be promising alternatives to current rechargeable batteries due to the exceptionally high specific energy of lithium metal (12 kWh kg À1 ) and the inexhaustible supply of oxygen from the ambient. There are four types of LieO 2 batteries categorized by the electrolyte: organic electrolyte, aqueous electrolyte , mixed organic and aqueous electrolyte, and solid state electrolyte [6]. Within these four types of LieO 2 batteries, the battery using the organic electrolyte, shown in Fig. 1, has recently attracted the most attention [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a new organic lithium oxygen (Li–O2) battery structure is proposed to enhance battery capacity. The electrolyte is forced to recirculate through the cathode and then saturated with oxygen in a tank external to the battery. The forced convection enhances oxygen transport and alleviates the problem of electrode blockage during discharge. A two dimensional, transient, non-isothermal simulation model is developed to study the heat and mass transfer within the battery and validate the proposed design. Results show that this novel active cathode design improves the battery capacity at all discharge current densities. The capacity of the Li–O2 battery is increased by 15.5 times (from 12.2 mAh g−1 to 201 mAh g−1) at the discharge current of 2.0 mA cm−2 when a conventional passive electrode is replaced by the newly designed active electrode. Furthermore, a cathode with non-uniform porosity is suggested and simulation results show that it can reach a higher discharge capacity without decreasing its power density. Detailed mass transport processes in the battery are also studied.
    03/2015; 81. DOI:10.1016/
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    • "Lithium metal possesses high theoretical charge density (3861 mA h/g) [9] and zero Li/Li þ potential. However, despite attempts to use it as an anode since the inception of the lithium-ion battery system [10e12] in today's emerging lithium-air batteries [5] [13] [14], the idea has remained unattainable due to the unavoidable problem of dendrite formation. In contrast, graphite enables the possibility of decreasing the nucleation rate of dendrites, and has established itself as a reliable technology. "
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of separator pore size on lithium dendrite growth is assessed through the use of the phase field method (PFM). Dendrites are found to undergo concurrent electrodeposition and electrodissolution that define their local growth or shrinkage. Moreover, dendrites are observed to detach due to localized electrodissolution and generate metallic debris that is detrimental to battery performance. A critical current density exists below which dendrites are fully suppressed. An analytical model based on the performed PFM simulations allows to formulate the critical current density as a function of separator morphology and pore radius. Four distinct regimes of dendrite growth are identified: (i) the suppression regime, where dendrite growth is thermodynamically unfavorable; (ii) the permeable regime, where dendrite growth is prohibited beyond the first layer of the separator; (iii) the penetration regime, in which dendrites are stable within the channels of the separator; and (iv) the short circuit regime, where dendrites penetrate the entire width of the separator causing a short circuit. The identification of these regimes serve as a guideline to design improved separators.
    Journal of Power Sources 02/2015; 275:912-921. DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.11.056 · 6.22 Impact Factor
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