Lateral Flow (immuno)Assay: Its Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. A Literature Survey

Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.44). 09/2008; 393(2):569-82. DOI: 10.1007/s00216-008-2287-2
Source: PubMed


Lateral flow (immuno)assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food and environmental settings. We describe principles of current formats, applications, limitations and perspectives for quantitative monitoring. We illustrate the potentials and limitations of analysis with lateral flow (immuno)assays using a literature survey and a SWOT analysis (acronym for "strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats"). Articles referred to in this survey were searched for on MEDLINE, Scopus and in references of reviewed papers. Search terms included "immunochromatography", "sol particle immunoassay", "lateral flow immunoassay" and "dipstick assay".

  • Source
    • "Immunochromatographic assay (ICA) is a popular technology for point-of-care applications. The main features of the GNPs-based ICA are the user-friendly operation, quickly obtained results, less interference due to chromatographic separation, a relatively low cost, and fairly good shelf life [21]. ICA has been widely used for rapid detection of toxic or harmful substances in many fields such as food safety monitoring and point-of-care diagnostics [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 3-amino-5-methylmorpholino-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ) is the metabolite of furaltadone (FTD), one kind of nitrofuran antibiotics which have been banned as veterinary drugs due to the potential harmful effects on human health. AMOZ is stable in tissue matrices, and can be used as an indicator for illegal usage of FTD. In this study, a novel ultrasensitive competitive immunochromatographic assay (ICA) based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for direct detection of AMOZ in tissue and urine samples was developed. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) against AMOZ and Raman reporter 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) dual labelled colloidal GNPs (e.g. Ab-Au-MBA) was prepared, characterized and used as an immunoprobe. The specific Raman scattering intensity of MBA on the test line of the ICA strip was measured for quantitative determination of AMOZ. The assay was completed within 15 min. The values of IC50 and limit of detection (LOD) of the assay for AMOZ were 0.04 ng mL−1 and 0.28 pg mL−1, respectively. There was no cross-reactivity (CR) of the assay with other three nitrofurans and five compounds. The ICA strips could be used for 7 weeks without loss of activity. The tissue and urine samples were spiked with AMOZ and the recoveries of AMOZ were in range of 87.8%∼105.9% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.4%∼9.0% (n = 3). The results demonstrated that the proposed SERS-based ICA was able to directly detect AMOZ with high sensitivity, specificity, stability, precision and accuracy, and might be as a powerful method for the analysis of other analytes in different matrices.
    Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 05/2015; 211:551-558. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2014.12.135 · 4.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In general, lateral flow biosensors are prefabricated strips of materials containing dry reagents that are activated by applying the fluid sample. They are designed for disposable single use and for applications where an on/off signal is sufficient [25]. LFBs are considered one of the most promising technologies owing to their simplicity, rapid analysis, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lateral flow paper biosensors are an attractive analytical platform for detection of human and veterinary disease pathogens because they are optimal for accurate, rapid and sensitive analysis in research laboratory setups, as well as field analysis. Since diseases of viral etiology have been wreaking havoc in aquaculture industry, as well as the environment, the present study aims at the development of a gold nanoparticle-based biosensor for fish nervous necrosis virus (Nodavirus) nucleic acids detection. Total viral RNA, isolated from fish samples was subjected to reverse transcription PCR amplification. The PCR products were mixed with a specific oligonucleotide probe and applied next to oligonucleotide conjugated Au NPs. A red test line was formed when nodavirus product was present. The visual detection of the RT-PCR product was completed within 20 min. Following optimization, the biosensor was able to visually detect 270 pg of nodavirus initial total RNA. The present study describes a simple, accurate, robust and low cost method for nodavirus detection in biological samples. Apart contribution on basic research, the proposed biosensor offers great potential for commercial kit development for use on the site of fish culture by fish farmers. This fact will have great impact on environmental safety and disease monitoring without time consuming and costly procedures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Molecular and Cellular Probes 03/2015; 29(3). DOI:10.1016/j.mcp.2015.03.005 · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Historically LFAs were regarded as fast, but insensitive, reaching only about 80% of the diagnostic performance of ELISAs [58–60]. Newer developments of LFA made use of liquid antigens and significantly improved the diagnostic performance of these tests. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are the serological hallmark of some idiopathic systemic vasculitides. Besides the investigation of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) and constant effort for a standardized nomenclature and classification of the AAV, a main focus of research during the last few years has been to constantly improve the performance of enzyme immunoassays. With the latest so called third generation ELISA, this goal seemed to be fulfilled. The International Consensus Statement on Testing and Reporting of ANCA gave recommendations for standardized strategies for the serological diagnosis of ANCA. New developments now target the system immanent drawbacks of the respective diagnostic methods, be it the need for batching and the long time to result for ELISA, or the high likelihood of error and subjectivity of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). Random access technology and multiplexing for solid phase assays as well as digital imaging for IIF are tools which may help to expedite and simplify routine diagnostics in the lab and in emergency settings. Recent findings indicate that PR3-ANCA have clinical utility beyond the diagnosis of AAV. PR3-ANCA can also serve as an aid for the differentiation between ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CrD) and the stratification of UC patients. This review provides a detailed review of what is known about ANCA and highlights the latest research and state-of-the-art developments in this area.
    Research Journal of Immunology 06/2014; 2014:185416. DOI:10.1155/2014/185416
Show more