Article

The influence of the type of resuscitation fluid on gut injury and distant organ injury in a rat model of trauma/hemorrhagic shock.

Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA.
The Journal of trauma (Impact Factor: 2.35). 08/2008; 65(2):409-14; discussion 414-5. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181719708
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recognition that resuscitation with Ringers lactate (RL) potentiates trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS)-induced organ injury and systemic inflammation has led to a search for improved initial fluid resuscitation regimens. However, one relatively neglected component in the search for new and novel resuscitation strategies is a determination of what fluid resuscitation therapy (i.e., control group) the new experimental regimen of interest should be tested against. Thus, we tested the effects of three commonly used resuscitation strategies on trauma-shock-induced gut and lung injury, as well as neutrophil activation and red blood cell (RBC) function.
Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to a laparotomy (trauma) and 90 minutes of sham shock (trauma-sham shock [T/SS]) or a laparotomy plus hemorrhagic shock (T/HS), followed by a reperfusion period of 3 hours. The T/HS groups were resuscitated either with their shed blood (SB), or half the SB and 1.5 times the SB volume as RL (SB/RL), or 3 times the SB volume as RL (3RL). The T/SS groups received either no resuscitation or RL at 1.5 times the SB volume of the T/HS rats. Gut injury was quantified by measuring intestinal permeability to flourescein dextran (FD-4), as well as by histologic analysis of the terminal ileum. Lung injury was assessed histologically and by the magnitude of neutrophil sequestration as reflected in myeloperoxidase levels. Neutrophil activation was measured by quantitating the level of CD11b expression using flow cytometry. RBC injury was analyzed by measuring the RBC deformability.
As compared with the T/SS groups, all three T/HS resuscitation regimens were associated with morphologic evidence of gut and lung injury, increased gut permeability, pulmonary leukosequestration, systemic neutrophil activation, and decreased RBC deformability (p < 0.05). However, the effect of the resuscitation regimens varied based on the tissues and cells tested. Morphologically, gut and lung injury as well as pulmonary neutrophil sequestration was worse in the 3RL T/HS group than the other two T/HS groups. As compared with the other two T/HS resuscitation regimens, resuscitation with the SB/RL combination was associated with less of an increase in gut permeability, systemic neutrophil activation, and RBC rigidification (p < 0.05).
The type of resuscitation regimen used influenced the extent of organ injury and cellular activation or dysfunction observed after T/HS with different resuscitation regimens showing varying effects depending on the cell or organ tested. Thus, when testing novel fluid resuscitation regimen, attention must be paid to the control resuscitation regimen used.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
57 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To discuss the current resuscitative strategies for trauma-induced hemorrhagic shock and acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC). Hemorrhagic shock can be acutely fatal if not immediately and appropriately treated. The primary tenets of hemorrhagic shock resuscitation are to arrest hemorrhage and restore the effective circulating volume. Large volumes of isotonic crystalloids have been the resuscitative strategy of choice; however, data from experimental animal models and retrospective human analyses now recognize that large-volume fluid resuscitation in uncontrolled hemorrhage may be deleterious. The optimal resuscitative strategy has yet to be defined. In human trauma, implementing damage control resuscitation with damage control surgery for controlling ongoing hemorrhage, acidosis, and hypothermia; managing ATC; and restoring effective circulating volume is emerging as a more optimal resuscitative strategy. With hyperfibrinolysis playing an integral role in the manifestation of ATC, the use of antifibrinolytics (eg, tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid) may also serve a beneficial role in the early posttraumatic period. Considering the sparse information regarding these resuscitative techniques in veterinary medicine, veterinarians are left with extrapolating information from human trials and experimental animal models. Viscoelastic tests integrated with predictive scoring systems may prove to be the most reliable methods for early detection of ATC as well as for guiding transfusion requirements. Hemorrhage accounts for up to 40% of human trauma-related deaths and remains the leading cause of preventable death in human trauma. The exact proportion of trauma-related deaths due to exsanguinations in veterinary patients remains uncertain. Survivability depends upon achieving rapid definitive hemostasis, early attenuation of posttraumatic coagulopathy, and timely restoration of effective circulating volume. Early institution of damage control resuscitation in severely injured patients with uncontrolled hemorrhage has the ability to curtail posttraumatic coagulopathy and the exacerbation of metabolic acidosis and hypothermia and improve survival until definitive hemostasis is achieved.
    Journal of veterinary emergency and critical care (San Antonio, Tex. : 2001). 01/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The goal of hemodynamic monitoring and management during major surgery is to guarantee adequate organ perfusion, a major prerequisite for adequate tissue oxygenation and thus, end-organ function. Further, hemodynamic monitoring should serve to prevent, detect, and to effectively guide treatment of potentially life-threatening hemodynamic events, such as severe hypovolemia due to hemorrhage, or cardiac failure. The ideal monitoring device does not exist, but some conditions must be met: it should be easy and operator-independently to use; it should provide adequate, reproducible information in real time. In this review we discuss in particular the role of intraoperative use of transesophageal echocardiography (TOE). Although TOE has gained special relevance in cardiac surgery, its role in major non cardiac surgery is still to be determined. We particularly focus on its ability to provide measurements of cardiac output (CO), and its role to guide fluid therapy. Within the last decade, concepts oriented on optimizing stroke volume and cardiac output mainly by fluid administration and guided by continuous monitoring of cardiac output or so called functional parameters of cardiac preload gained particular attention. Although they are potentially linked to an increased amount of fluid infusion, recent data give evidence that such pre-emptive concepts of hemodynamic optimization result in a decrease in morbidity and mortality. As TOE allows a real time direct visualization of cardiac structures, other potentially important advantages of its use also outside the cardiac surgery operation room can be postulated, namely the ability to evaluate the anatomical and functional integrity of the left and the right heart chambers. Finally, a practical approach to TOE monitoring is presented, based on a local experience.
    Current Cardiology Reviews 08/2011; 7(3):184-96.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Critically ill patients frequently display unexplained or incompletely explained features of gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, including gastric stasis, ileus, and diarrhea. This makes nutrition delivery challenging, and may contribute to poor outcomes. The typical bowel dysfunction seen in severely ill patients includes retarded gastric emptying, unsynchronized intestinal motility, and intestinal hyperpermeability. These functional changes appear similar to the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated bowel dysfunctions associated with stress of various types and some GI disorders and diseases. CRF has been shown to be present within the GI tract and its action on CRF receptors within the gut have been shown to reduce gastric emptying, alter intestinal motility, and increase intestinal permeability. However, the precise role of CRF in the GI dysfunction in critical illness remains unclear. In this short review, we provide an update on GI dysfunction during stress and review the possible role of CRF in the aetiology of gut dysfunction. We suggest that activation of CRF signaling pathways in critical illness might be key to understanding the mechanisms underlying the gut dysfunction that impairs enteral feeding in the intensive care unit.
    Nutrition 02/2013; · 3.05 Impact Factor