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The spontaneous expression of pride and shame: evidence for biologically innate nonverbal displays. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA

Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, 2136 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 08/2008; 105(33):11655-60. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0802686105
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The present research examined whether the recognizable nonverbal expressions associated with pride and shame may be biologically innate behavioral responses to success and failure. Specifically, we tested whether sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals across cultures spontaneously display pride and shame behaviors in response to the same success and failure situations--victory and defeat at the Olympic or Paralympic Games. Results showed that sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals from >30 nations displayed the behaviors associated with the prototypical pride expression in response to success. Sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals from most cultures also displayed behaviors associated with shame in response to failure. However, culture moderated the shame response among sighted athletes: it was less pronounced among individuals from highly individualistic, self-expression-valuing cultures, primarily in North America and West Eurasia. Given that congenitally blind individuals across cultures showed the shame response to failure, findings overall are consistent with the suggestion that the behavioral expressions associated with both shame and pride are likely to be innate, but the shame display may be intentionally inhibited by some sighted individuals in accordance with cultural norms.

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    • "Studies have demonstrated that pride has a distinct , recognizable nonverbal expression that is reliably identified by children and adults from several different cultural groups, including geographically and culturally isolated traditional smallscale societies in Burkina Faso and Fiji (Tracy & Robins, 2004a, 2008; Tracy, Robins, & Lagattuta, 2005; Tracy, Shariff, Zhao, & Henrich, 2013). Furthermore, the pride expression is spontaneously displayed by individuals from a wide range of cultures in response to the pride-eliciting situation of success, and by congenitally blind individuals who could not have learned to display pride through visual modeling (Tracy & Matsumoto, 2008). Together, these findings suggest that the pride expression meets the criteria typically considered to indicate universality (see Norenzayan & Heine, 2005), and thus that pride may be part of humans' evolved emotional repertoire. "
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    ABSTRACT: Across six studies conducted in Mainland China and South Korea, the present research extended prior findings showing that pride is comprised of two distinct conceptual and experiential facets in the U.S.: a pro-social, achievement-oriented “authentic pride”, and an arrogant, self-aggrandizing “hubristic pride”. This same two-facet structure emerged in Chinese participants’ semantic conceptualizations of pride (Study 1), Chinese and Koreans’ dispositional tendencies to experience pride (Studies 2, 3a, and 3b), Chinese and Koreans’ momentary pride experiences (Studies 3a, 3b, and 5), and Americans’ pride experiences using descriptors derived indigenously in Korea (Study 4). Together, these studies provide the first evidence that the two-facet structure of pride generalizes to cultures with highly divergent views of pride and self-enhancement processes from North America.
    Journal of Research in Personality 02/2015; 55. DOI:10.1016/j.jrp.2015.01.004 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    • "In fact, we can recognize the basic set of emotions using bodily expressions in the absence of facial expressions (Van den Stock, Righart, and de Gelder, 2007 ), and independently of cultural factors (Rozin et al., 2005 ). When emotional expressions are considered in the context of heads and bodies, research suggests that the list of distinct and universally recognized emotions may need to be expanded to include pride (expanded posture and upward head tilt; Tracy and Matsumoto, 2008 ) and shame (hunched posture and downward head tilt; Keltner, 1995 ). Recognition of dynamic whole-body expressions is easier than static stimuli (Atkinson, Dittrich, Gemmell, Young, 2004 ) and these dynamic expressions not only provide information about the emotional state of the producer, but also signal his or her action intentions. "
    Cambridge Handbook of Applied Perception Research, Edited by Robert R. Hoffman (Editor, Peter A. Hancock (Editor, Mark Scerbo (Editor, Raja Parasuraman (Editor, James L. Szalma (Editor, 01/2015;
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    • "Research assistants were instructed to review all videos of a convenience sample of 30 basketball games one after the other. They were to select each video that fitted the aforementioned criteria (breaks during game, no obvious nonverbal signals that have empirically been linked to victory and defeat [Tracy & Matsumoto, 2008]), until each category of scores contained 20 videos. To maximize transparency, we provide hyperlinks to the stimulus material used in the studies. "
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of the present research was to test whether score-related changes in opponents’ nonverbal behavior influence athletes’ confidence in beating their opponents. In an experiment, 40 participants who were experienced basketball players watched brief video clips depicting athletes’ nonverbal behavior. Video clips were not artificially created, but showed naturally occurring behavior. Participants indicated how confident they were in beating the presented athletes in a hypothetical scenario. Results indicated that participants’ confidence estimations were influenced by opponents’ score-related nonverbal behavior. Participants were less confident about beating a leading team and more confident about beating a trailing team although they were unaware of the actual score during the depicted scenes. The present research is the first to show that in-game variations of naturally occurring nonverbal behavior can influence athletes’ confidence. This finding highlights the importance of research into nonverbal behavior in sports, particularly in relation to athletes’ confidence.
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