The spontaneous expression of pride and shame: Evidence for biologically innate nonverbal displays. [Erratum in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008, 105(50):20044]

Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, 2136 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 08/2008; 105(33):11655-60. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0802686105
Source: PubMed


The present research examined whether the recognizable nonverbal expressions associated with pride and shame may be biologically innate behavioral responses to success and failure. Specifically, we tested whether sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals across cultures spontaneously display pride and shame behaviors in response to the same success and failure situations--victory and defeat at the Olympic or Paralympic Games. Results showed that sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals from >30 nations displayed the behaviors associated with the prototypical pride expression in response to success. Sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals from most cultures also displayed behaviors associated with shame in response to failure. However, culture moderated the shame response among sighted athletes: it was less pronounced among individuals from highly individualistic, self-expression-valuing cultures, primarily in North America and West Eurasia. Given that congenitally blind individuals across cultures showed the shame response to failure, findings overall are consistent with the suggestion that the behavioral expressions associated with both shame and pride are likely to be innate, but the shame display may be intentionally inhibited by some sighted individuals in accordance with cultural norms.

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    • "A minimum amount of group (ensemble) singing experience was used to ensure that all participants could complete the singing task without performance anxiety related to correct pitch reproduction. An inability to accurately sing the notated pitches may have elicited feelings of shame or guilt, which are known to affect head motion (Keltner, 1995; Tracy & Matsumoto, 2008). Research has indicated that vocalists are more pitch-accurate when singing with others, rather than singing alone, as seen during private singing lessons (Green, 1994). "
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    ABSTRACT: When speaking or singing, vocalists often move their heads in an expressive fashion, yet the influence of emotion on vocalists' head motion is unknown. Using a comparative speech/song task, we examined whether vocalists' intended emotions influence head movements and whether those movements influence the perceived emotion. In Experiment 1, vocalists were recorded with motion capture while speaking and singing each statement with different emotional intentions (very happy, happy, neutral, sad, very sad). Functional data analyses showed that head movements differed in translational and rotational displacement across emotional intentions, yet were similar across speech and song, transcending differences in F0 (varied freely in speech, fixed in song) and lexical variability. Head motion specific to emotional state occurred before and after vocalizations, as well as during sound production, confirming that some aspects of movement were not simply a by-product of sound production. In Experiment 2, observers accurately identified vocalists' intended emotion on the basis of silent, face-occluded videos of head movements during speech and song. These results provide the first evidence that head movements encode a vocalist's emotional intent and that observers decode emotional information from these movements. We discuss implications for models of head motion during vocalizations and applied outcomes in social robotics and automated emotion recognition.
    Emotion 10/2015; DOI:10.1037/emo0000106 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Research assistants were instructed to review all videos of a convenience sample of 30 basketball games one after the other. They were to select each video that fitted the above mentioned criteria (breaks during game, no obvious nonverbal signals that have empirically been linked to victory and defeat [Tracy and Matsumoto, 2008]), until each category of scores contained 20 videos (see Footnote 1 for the hyperlink to the utilized stimulus material). "
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    ABSTRACT: Humans can detect whether athletes are leading or trailing based on thin slices of athletes’ nonverbal behavior, presumably because communicating and interpreting status has evolved to be highly beneficial for humans. The goal of the present research was to examine this evolutionary perspective on nonverbal behavior in sports. First, in Experiment 1 (N = 40), we investigated if leading athletes are rated higher on dimensions related to social status than are trailing athletes. Experiment 1 showed that perceivers rated leading athletes as more dominant, more proud, and more confident than trailing athletes, without being aware of the actual score. Second, we were interested in the role of head-related versus body-related information and in the role of dynamic versus static information. In Experiment 2, 120 participants watched short videos from basketball matches and rated whether athletes were leading or trailing. We occluded either athletes’ faces, athletes’ bodies or showed both faces and bodies. Experiment 2 and 3 (N = 160) showed that very scarce information was sufficient for differentiating between leading and trailing athletes, even when faces or bodies were occluded. These findings are in line with ecological approaches to person perception and evolutionary accounts of nonverbal behavior.
    Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 10/2015; · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    • "NVBs expressing pride and shame were created based both on the coding system adopted by Tracy and Matsumoto ( 2008 ) and on the coding system used by Moll et al . ( 2010 ) to make them more representative of the emotional expression during penalty shootouts . "
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