Syndecan 1 (CD138) serum levels: a novel biomarker in predicting liver fibrosis stage in patients with hepatitis C
ABSTRACT Syndecan 1 (CD 138) is a cell surface proteoglycan shed by cells in several pathological conditions, including wound healing. The aim of this study was to test whether CD138 could serve as a non-invasive marker for detection of liver fibrosis and thereby reduce the need for liver biopsy.
An estimation set of 134 patients and a validation set of 67 patients with chronic hepatitis C were studied. There were 80 normal healthy volunteers. Patients were staged according to liver biopsies (Metavir fibrosis staging, stage F0, n=35; F1, n=40; F2, n=37, F3, n=39; F4, n=51). Serum CD138 levels were retrospectively measured by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay the same day of the liver biopsy. The primary endpoints were the diagnostic values of CD138 for F2-F4, F3-F4 and F4.
Respective areas under receiver operating characteristic curve of CD138 for F2-F4, F3-F4 and F4 diagnosis were 0.82, 0.76 and 0.81. CD138 had a positive predictive value of 82% for F2-F4 diagnosis and a high negative predictive value (86%) and specificity (84%) for exclusion of F4.
CD138 is a new simple non-invasive marker for predicting liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The relevance of this marker in combination with other fibrosis markers should be explored.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background and aims. Syndecan-1 (CD138) is a transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed in the liver which may exert metabolic effects by mediating the hepatic clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In the present study, we assayed serum levels and the hepatic expression of syndecan-1 and examined their association with clinical, biochemical, and histologic phenotypes in patients with histology-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods. A total of 59 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 54 matched controls were enrolled. The analysis of syndecan-1 expression in liver biopsies was performed by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. Serum syndecan-1 levels were measured by ELISA. Results. NAFLD patients had significantly higher serum syndecan-1 levels [median: 61 ng/mL (interquartile range: 36-97 ng/mL)] than controls [median: 37 ng/mL (interquartile range: 25-59 ng/mL, Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.001]. However, we did not find any significant association between serum syndecan-1 and the mean syndecan-1 immunohistochemical score (n = 59, r = 0.064, p = 0.63). Interestingly, the syndecan-1 immunohistochemical score was an independent predictor of HDL cholesterol in NAFLD patients (β = 0.27; t = 1.99, p < 0.05). Conclusions. Our data suggest that serum syndecan-1 levels are raised in patients with NAFLD. Moreover, the syndecan-1 immunohistochemical score in the liver is independently associated with HDL cholesterol in this group of patients. These pilot results support further investigation of this molecule in metabolic liver diseases.Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2012; 47(12). DOI:10.3109/00365521.2012.725093 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To cause infections, microbial pathogens elaborate a multitude of factors that interact with host components. Using these host–pathogen interactions to their advantage, pathogens attach, invade, disseminate, and evade host defense mechanisms to promote their survival in the hostile host environment. Many viruses, bacteria, and parasites express adhesins that bind to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) to facilitate their initial attachment and subsequent cellular entry. Some pathogens also secrete virulence factors that modify HSPG expression. HSPGs are ubiquitously expressed on the cell surface of adherent cells and in the extracellular matrix. HSPGs are composed of one or several heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycan chains attached covalently to specific core proteins. For most intracellular pathogens, cell surface HSPGs serve as a scaffold that facilitates the interaction of microbes with secondary receptors that mediate host cell entry. Consistent with this mechanism, addition of HS or its pharmaceutical functional mimic, heparin, inhibits microbial attachment and entry into cultured host cells, and HS-binding pathogens can no longer attach or enter cultured host cells whose HS expression has been reduced by enzymatic treatment or chemical mutagenesis. In pathogens where the specific HS adhesin has been identified, mutant strains lacking HS adhesins are viable and show normal growth rates, suggesting that the capacity to interact with HSPGs is strictly a virulence activity. The goal of this chapter is to provide a mechanistic overview of our current understanding of how certain microbial pathogens subvert HSPGs to promote their infection, using specific HSPG–pathogen interactions as representative examples.04/2011: pages 31-62;
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ABSTRACT: Syndecan-1 is a transmembrane heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan present on hepatocytes and involved in uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins via its HS polysaccharide side chains. We hypothesized that altered hepatic syndecan-1 metabolism could be involved in dyslipidemia related to renal transplantation. In a rat renal transplantation model elevated plasma triglycerides were associated with fivefold increased expression of hepatic syndecan-1 mRNA (p < 0.01), but not protein. Expression of syndecan-1 sheddases (ADAM17, MMP9) and heparanase was significantly up-regulated after renal transplantation (all p < 0.05). Profiling of HS side chains revealed loss of hepatic HS upon renal transplantation accompanied by significant decreased functional capacity for VLDL binding (p = 0.02). In a human renal transplantation cohort (n = 510), plasma levels of shed syndecan-1 were measured. Multivariate analysis showed plasma syndecan-1 to be independently associated with triglycerides (p < 0.0001) and inversely with HDL cholesterol (p < 0.0001). Last, we show a physical association of syndecan-1 to HDL from renal transplant recipients (RTRs), but not to HDL from healthy controls. Our data suggest that after renal transplantation loss of hepatic HS together with increased syndecan-1 shedding hampers lipoprotein binding and uptake by the liver contributing to dyslipidemia. Our data open perspectives toward improvement of lipid profiles by targeted inhibition of syndecan-1 catabolism in renal transplantation.American Journal of Transplantation 08/2014; 14(10). DOI:10.1111/ajt.12842 · 6.19 Impact Factor