Syndecan 1 (CD138) serum levels: a novel biomarker in predicting liver fibrosis stage in patients with hepatitis C.
ABSTRACT Syndecan 1 (CD 138) is a cell surface proteoglycan shed by cells in several pathological conditions, including wound healing. The aim of this study was to test whether CD138 could serve as a non-invasive marker for detection of liver fibrosis and thereby reduce the need for liver biopsy.
An estimation set of 134 patients and a validation set of 67 patients with chronic hepatitis C were studied. There were 80 normal healthy volunteers. Patients were staged according to liver biopsies (Metavir fibrosis staging, stage F0, n=35; F1, n=40; F2, n=37, F3, n=39; F4, n=51). Serum CD138 levels were retrospectively measured by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay the same day of the liver biopsy. The primary endpoints were the diagnostic values of CD138 for F2-F4, F3-F4 and F4.
Respective areas under receiver operating characteristic curve of CD138 for F2-F4, F3-F4 and F4 diagnosis were 0.82, 0.76 and 0.81. CD138 had a positive predictive value of 82% for F2-F4 diagnosis and a high negative predictive value (86%) and specificity (84%) for exclusion of F4.
CD138 is a new simple non-invasive marker for predicting liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The relevance of this marker in combination with other fibrosis markers should be explored.
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ABSTRACT: Microbial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract has been implicated in chronic activation of the immune system during progressive HIV-1 infection by ill-defined mechanisms. We recently identified a gene encoding syndecan-1 (SYN1) in microarray studies of HIV-1 infection in lymphatic tissues and show here that increased expression of SYN1 in the gut of HIV-1-infected individuals is associated with increased microbial translocation. We further show that: (1) microbial access to SYN1 in the intestinal epithelium could be mediated by compromised barrier function through the upregulation of claudin-2; (2) increases in SYN1 and microbial translocation are associated with systemic immune activation; and (3) SYN1 expression and microbial translocation are inversely correlated with peripheral blood CD4 T-cell counts. We thus propose a new mechanism in which claudin-2 and SYN1 work in concert to enhance microbial translocation across the intestinal epithelial barrier to contribute to chronic immune activation and CD4 T-cell depletion.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 11/2010; 55(3):306-15. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background and aims. Syndecan-1 (CD138) is a transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed in the liver which may exert metabolic effects by mediating the hepatic clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In the present study, we assayed serum levels and the hepatic expression of syndecan-1 and examined their association with clinical, biochemical, and histologic phenotypes in patients with histology-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods. A total of 59 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 54 matched controls were enrolled. The analysis of syndecan-1 expression in liver biopsies was performed by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. Serum syndecan-1 levels were measured by ELISA. Results. NAFLD patients had significantly higher serum syndecan-1 levels [median: 61 ng/mL (interquartile range: 36-97 ng/mL)] than controls [median: 37 ng/mL (interquartile range: 25-59 ng/mL, Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.001]. However, we did not find any significant association between serum syndecan-1 and the mean syndecan-1 immunohistochemical score (n = 59, r = 0.064, p = 0.63). Interestingly, the syndecan-1 immunohistochemical score was an independent predictor of HDL cholesterol in NAFLD patients (β = 0.27; t = 1.99, p < 0.05). Conclusions. Our data suggest that serum syndecan-1 levels are raised in patients with NAFLD. Moreover, the syndecan-1 immunohistochemical score in the liver is independently associated with HDL cholesterol in this group of patients. These pilot results support further investigation of this molecule in metabolic liver diseases.Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology 11/2012; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To cause infections, microbial pathogens elaborate a multitude of factors that interact with host components. Using these host–pathogen interactions to their advantage, pathogens attach, invade, disseminate, and evade host defense mechanisms to promote their survival in the hostile host environment. Many viruses, bacteria, and parasites express adhesins that bind to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) to facilitate their initial attachment and subsequent cellular entry. Some pathogens also secrete virulence factors that modify HSPG expression. HSPGs are ubiquitously expressed on the cell surface of adherent cells and in the extracellular matrix. HSPGs are composed of one or several heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycan chains attached covalently to specific core proteins. For most intracellular pathogens, cell surface HSPGs serve as a scaffold that facilitates the interaction of microbes with secondary receptors that mediate host cell entry. Consistent with this mechanism, addition of HS or its pharmaceutical functional mimic, heparin, inhibits microbial attachment and entry into cultured host cells, and HS-binding pathogens can no longer attach or enter cultured host cells whose HS expression has been reduced by enzymatic treatment or chemical mutagenesis. In pathogens where the specific HS adhesin has been identified, mutant strains lacking HS adhesins are viable and show normal growth rates, suggesting that the capacity to interact with HSPGs is strictly a virulence activity. The goal of this chapter is to provide a mechanistic overview of our current understanding of how certain microbial pathogens subvert HSPGs to promote their infection, using specific HSPG–pathogen interactions as representative examples.04/2011: pages 31-62;