Ribosyl geometry in the transition state of Streptococcus pneumoniae methylthioadenosine nucleosidase from the 3 '-(2)H kinetic isotope effect
ABSTRACT Synthesis of [3'-(2)H)-labeled 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) derivatives permitted measurement of the [3'-(2)H) KIE of the reaction catalyzed by Streptococcus pneumoniae methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (spMTAN). The key [3'-(2)H) KIE revealed the partial 3'-OH polarization and H3'-endo -> exo ribosyl configuration at the spMTAN transition state. A new understanding of the transition state stabilization of spMTAN-catalyzed hydrolysis is uncovered in structural features at the spMTAN transition state.
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ABSTRACT: The importance of methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine (MTA/SAH) nucleosidase in bacteria has started to be appreciated only in the past decade. A comprehensive analysis of its various roles here demonstrates that it is an integral component of the activated methyl cycle, which recycles adenine and methionine through S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-mediated methylation reactions, and also produces the universal quorum-sensing signal, autoinducer-2 (AI-2). SAM is also essential for synthesis of polyamines, N-acylhomoserine lactone (autoinducer-1), and production of vitamins and other biomolecules formed by SAM radical reactions. MTA, SAH and 5'-deoxyadenosine (5'dADO) are product inhibitors of these reactions, and are substrates of MTA/SAH nucleosidase, underscoring its importance in a wide array of metabolic reactions. Inhibition of this enzyme by certain substrate analogues also limits synthesis of autoinducers and hence causes reduction in biofilm formation and may attenuate virulence. Interestingly, the inhibitors of MTA/SAH nucleosidase are very effective against the Lyme disease causing spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi, which uniquely expresses three homologous functional enzymes. These results indicate that inhibition of this enzyme can affect growth of different bacteria by affecting different mechanisms. Therefore, new inhibitors are currently being explored for development of potential novel broad-spectrum antimicrobials.Molecular Microbiology 01/2011; 79(1):7-20. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07455.x · 5.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several acyclic hydroxy-methylthio-amines with 3-5 carbon atoms were prepared and coupled via a methylene link to 9-deazaadenine. The products were tested for inhibition against human MTAP and Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis MTANs and gave K(i) values as low as 0.23 nM. These results were compared to those obtained with 1st and 2nd generation inhibitors (1S)-1-(9-deazaadenin-9-yl)-1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-5-methylthio-D-ribitol (MT-Immucillin-A, 3) and (3R,4S)-1-[9-deazaadenin-9-yl)methyl]3-hydroxy-4-methylthiomethylpyrrolidine (MT-DADMe-Immucillin-A, 4). The best inhibitors were found to exhibit binding affinities of approximately 2- to 4-fold those of 3 but were significantly weaker than 4. Cleavage of the 2,3 carbon-carbon bond in MT-Immucillin-A (3) gave an acyclic product (79) with a 21,500 fold loss of activity against E. coli MTAN. In another case, N-methylation of a side chain secondary amine resulted in a 250-fold loss of activity against the same enzyme [(±)-65 vs (±)-68]. The inhibition results were also contrasted with those acyclic derivatives previously prepared as inhibitors for a related enzyme, purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), where some inhibitors in the latter case were found to be more potent than their cyclic counterparts.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 07/2012; 20(17):5181-7. DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2012.07.006 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Protein methyltransferases (PMTs) catalyze arginine and lysine methylation of diverse histone and nonhistone targets. These posttranslational modifications play essential roles in regulating multiple cellular events in an epigenetic manner. In the recent process of defining PMT targets, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) analogues have emerged as powerful small molecule probes to label and profile PMT targets. To examine efficiently the reactivity of PMTs and their variants on SAM analogues, we transformed a fluorogenic PMT assay into a ready high throughput screening (HTS) format. The reformulated fluorogenic assay is featured by its uncoupled but more robust character with the first step of accumulation of the commonly-shared reaction byproduct S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH), followed by SAH-hydrolase-mediated fluorogenic quantification. The HTS readiness and robustness of the assay were demonstrated by its excellent Z' values of 0.83-0.95 for the so-far-examined 8 human PMTs with SAM as a cofactor (PRMT1, PRMT3, CARM1, SUV39H2, SET7/9, SET8, G9a and GLP1). The fluorogenic assay was further implemented to screen the PMTs against five SAM analogues (allyl-SAM, propargyl-SAM, (E)-pent-2-en-4-ynyl-SAM (EnYn-SAM), (E)-hex-2-en-5-ynyl-SAM (Hey-SAM) and 4-propargyloxy-but-2-enyl-SAM (Pob-SAM)). Among the examined 8 × 5 pairs of PMTs and SAM analogues, native SUV39H2, G9a and GLP1 showed promiscuous activity on allyl-SAM. In contrast, the bulky SAM analogues, such as EnYn-SAM, Hey-SAM and Pob-SAM, are inert toward the panel of human PMTs. These findings therefore provide the useful structure-activity guidance to further evolve PMTs and SAM analogues for substrate labeling. The current assay format is ready to screen methyltransferase variants on structurally-diverse SAM analogues.Molecular BioSystems 08/2011; 7(11):2970-81. DOI:10.1039/c1mb05230f · 3.35 Impact Factor