Ribosyl geometry in the transition state of Streptococcus pneumoniae methylthioadenosine nucleosidase from the 3 '-(2)H kinetic isotope effect
ABSTRACT Synthesis of [3'-(2)H)-labeled 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) derivatives permitted measurement of the [3'-(2)H) KIE of the reaction catalyzed by Streptococcus pneumoniae methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (spMTAN). The key [3'-(2)H) KIE revealed the partial 3'-OH polarization and H3'-endo -> exo ribosyl configuration at the spMTAN transition state. A new understanding of the transition state stabilization of spMTAN-catalyzed hydrolysis is uncovered in structural features at the spMTAN transition state.
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ABSTRACT: Orotate phosphoribosyltransferases (OPRT) catalyze the formation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) from alpha-D-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) and orotate, an essential step in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. Pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis is required in Plasmodium falciparum , and thus OPRT of the parasite (PfOPRT) is a target for antimalarial drugs. De novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines is also a feature of rapidly proliferating cancer cells. Human OPRT (HsOPRT) is therefore a target for neoplastic and autoimmune diseases. One approach to the inhibition of OPRTs is through analogues that mimic the transition states of PfOPRT and HsOPRT. The transition state structures of these OPRTs were analyzed by kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), substrate specificity, and computational chemistry. With phosphonoacetic acid (PA), an analogue of pyrophosphate, the intrinsic KIEs of [1'-(14)C], [1, 3-(15)N(2)], [3-(15)N], [1'-(3)H], [2'-(3)H], [4'-(3)H], and [5'-(3)H(2)] are 1.034, 1.028, 0.997, 1.261, 1.116, 0.974, and 1.013 for PfOPRT and 1.035, 1.025, 0.993, 1.199, 1.129, 0.962, and 1.019 for HsOPRT, respectively. Transition state structures of PfOPRT and HsOPRT were determined computationally by matching the calculated and intrinsic KIEs. The enzymes form late associative D(N)*A(N)(double dagger) transition states with complete orotate loss and partially associative nucleophile. The C1'-O(PA) distances are approximately 2.1 A at these transition states. The modest [1'-(14)C] KIEs and large [1'-(3)H] KIEs are characteristic of D(N)*A(N)(double dagger) transition states. The large [2'-(3)H] KIEs indicate a ribosyl 2'-C-endo conformation at the transition states. p-Nitrophenyl beta-D-ribose 5'-phosphate is a poor substrate of PfOPRT and HsOPRT but is a nanomolar inhibitor, supporting a reaction coordinate with strong leaving group activation.Journal of the American Chemical Society 05/2009; 131(13):4685-94. DOI:10.1021/ja808346y · 11.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epigenetic regulation through protein posttranslational modifications is essential in development and disease. Among the key chemical modifications is protein methylation carried out by protein methyltransferases (PMTs). Quantitative and sensitive PMT activity assays can provide valuable tools to investigate PMT functions. Here we developed an enzyme-coupled luminescence assay for S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet/SAM)-based PMTs. In this assay, S-adenosyl-l-homocystine (AdoHcy/SAH), the by-product of PMT-involved methylation, is sequentially converted to adenine, adenosine monophosphate, and then adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) by 5'-methylthio-adenosine/AdoHcy nucleosidase (MTAN), adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT), and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), respectively. The resultant ATP can be readily quantified with a luciferin/luciferase kit. This assay is featured for its quantitative linear response to AdoHcy and the ultrasensitivity to 0.3 pmol of AdoHcy. With this assay, the kinetic parameters of SET7/9 methylation were characterized and unambiguously support an ordered mechanism with AdoMet binding as the initial step, followed by the substrate binding and the rate-limiting methylation. The luminescence assay is also expected to be generally applicable to many other AdoMet-dependent enzymes. In addition, the mix-and-measure 96-/384-well format of our assay makes it suitable for automation and high throughput. Our enzyme-coupled luminescence assay, therefore, represents a convenient and ultrasensitive approach to examine methyltransferase activities and identify methyltransferase inhibitors.Analytical Biochemistry 03/2010; 401(2):203-10. DOI:10.1016/j.ab.2010.03.010 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Kinetic isotope effects are exquisitely sensitive probes of transition structure. As such, kinetic isotope effects offer a uniquely useful probe for the symmetry-breaking process that is inherent to stereoselective reactions. In this Concept article, we explore the role of steric and electronic effects in stereocontrol, and we relate these concepts to recent studies carried out in our laboratory. We also explore the way in which kinetic isotope effects serve as useful points of contact with computational models of transition structures. Finally, we discuss future opportunities for kinetic isotope effects to play a role in asymmetric catalyst development.Chemistry - A European Journal 09/2010; 16(35):10616-28. DOI:10.1002/chem.201001018 · 5.70 Impact Factor