Platelet factor 4 mediates inflammation in experimental cerebral malaria.
ABSTRACT Cerebral malaria (CM) is a major complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection in children. The pathogenesis of CM involves vascular inflammation, immune stimulation, and obstruction of cerebral capillaries. Platelets have a prominent role in both immune responses and vascular obstruction. We now demonstrate that the platelet-derived chemokine, platelet factor 4 (PF4)/CXCL4, promotes the development of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). Plasmodium-infected red blood cells (RBCs) activated platelets independently of vascular effects, resulting in increased plasma PF4. PF4 or chemokine receptor CXCR3 null mice had less severe ECM, including decreased T cell recruitment to the brain, and platelet depletion or aspirin treatment reduced the development of ECM. We conclude that Plasmodium-infected RBCs can directly activate platelets, and platelet-derived PF4 then contributes to immune activation and T cell trafficking as part of the pathogenesis of ECM.
Article: Optimally functional fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled fibrinogen for quantitative studies of binding to activated platelets and platelet aggregation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dynamic and quantitative studies of the binding of fibrinogen (Fg) to its receptor, GPIIb-IIIa, on activated platelets, leading to platelet aggregation, are best studied with fluorescently-labelled Fg by flow cytometry. Due to conflicting reports on the functionality of FITC-labelled Fg, we have developed a reproducible and 'mild' labelling of fibrinogen with FITC-celite at pH 7.4-8.5 for direct and dynamic studies of specific Fg binding to activated platelets evaluated for native platelet-rich plasma, for washed platelets, and for activated, fixed platelets. We have demonstrated the equivalence of FITC-labelled and unlabelled Fg for binding to activated GPIIb-IIIa receptors, and in the rate and extent of mediating platelet aggregation. We found that FITC-Fg labelled at pH > or = 9 had reduced to absent specific binding to activated platelets, whether using soluble FITC or FITC-celite. The FITC-labelled Fg must be diluted 3-fold with unlabelled Fg when evaluating maximal Fg binding to activated platelets in order to prevent autoquenching of the FITC-Fg which leads to underestimation of Fg levels. The dissociation constant (KD) of Fg on stable preparations of activated, fixed platelets, determined with FITC-Fg binding to platelets by flow cytometry, was in the range reported for 125I-labelled Fg, 70-255 nm with Bmax = 10000-25000 Fg per platelet (n = 20). The FITC-Fg was used to monitor Fg binding to activated platelets directly by plasma, as well as to evaluate platelet subpopulations which maximally bind Fg according to the concentration of ADP used as activator. It is expected that this 'mildly' labelled FITC-Fg will stimulate further studies of platelet activation directly in native anticoagulated blood/plasma, for both basic and clinical research.British Journal of Haematology 04/1996; 93(1):204-14. · 4.94 Impact Factor