Common variable immunodeficiency: a new look at an old disease

Division of Allergic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 39.21). 09/2008; 372(9637):489-502. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61199-X
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Primary immunodeficiencies comprise many diseases caused by genetic defects primarily affecting the immune system. About 150 such diseases have been identified with more than 120 associated genetic defects. Although primary immunodeficiencies are quite rare in incidence, the prevalence can range from one in 500 to one in 500 000 in the general population, depending on the diagnostic skills and medical resources available in different countries. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the primary immunodeficiency most commonly encountered in clinical practice, and appropriate diagnosis and management of patients will have a significant effect on morbidity and mortality as well as financial aspects of health care. Advances in diagnostic laboratory methods, including B-cell subset analysis and genetic testing, coupled with new insights into the molecular basis of immune dysfunction in some patients with CVID, have enabled advances in the clinical classification of this heterogeneous disease.


Available from: Roshini Abraham, May 06, 2015
1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is the most frequent form of symptomatic primary immunodeficiency disease, characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections and increased predisposition to autoimmunity and malignancies. The aim of this study was to reconsider important points of previously performed studies on Iranian CVID patients diagnosed and followed from 1984 to 2013. Methods: Diagnosis was made using approved criteria including reductions of serum levels of immunoglobulins and exclusion of well-known single gene defects in individuals with an age >4 years and evidence of specific antibody deficiency. Results: Detailed information on demographic data, survival rates, clinical phenotypes, immunologic and genetic data and treatment of 173 patients are provided. The early onset presentation (74.5%) and rate of consanguineous marriage (61.2%) were considerably higher in our cohort. Our study revealed clinically related correlations regarding consanguinity, the population of naïve CD4(+) T cells and switched-memory B cells, cytokine levels and special genetic factors (including HLA and AID genes). Conclusion: Despite current efforts, more comprehensive studies are needed, especially for classification and investigation of the genetic background and prognostic factors for patients with CVID in order to better managment and followup of patinets.
    Expert Review of Clinical Immunology 10/2014; 10(10):1405-1417. DOI:10.1586/1744666X.2014.958469 · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary antibody deficiencies require lifelong replacement therapy with immunoglobulin G (IgG) to reduce the incidence and severity of infections. Both subcutaneous and intravenous routes of administering IgG can be effective and well tolerated. Treatment regimens can be individualised to provide optimal medical and quality of life outcomes in infants, children, adults and the elderly. Frequency, dose, route of administration, home or infusion-centre administration, and the use of self- or health-professional administered infusion can be tailored to suit individual patient needs and circumstances. Patient education is needed to understand the disease and the importance of continuous therapy. Both the subcutaneous and intravenous routes have advantages and disadvantages, which should be considered in selecting each patient's treatment regimen. The subcutaneous route is attractive to many patients because of a reduced incidence of systemic adverse events, flexibility in scheduling and its comparative ease of administration, at home or in a clinic. Self-infusion regimens, however, require independence and self-reliance, good compliance on the part of the patient/parent, and confidence of the physician and the nurse. Intravenous administration in a clinic setting may be more appropriate in patients with reduced manual dexterity, reluctance to self-administer or a lack of self-reliance, and intravenous administration at home for those with good venous access who prefer less frequent treatments. Both therapy approaches have been demonstrated to provide protection from infections and improve health-related quality of life. Data supporting current options in IgG replacement are presented, and considerations in choosing between the two routes of therapy are discussed.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 11/2014; 179(2). DOI:10.1111/cei.12485 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary immunodeficiency (PID) disorders that predispose patients to recurrent infections require immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy. Ig replacement therapy has been stated as beneficial, although the optimal IgG trough level to be maintained over time in order to minimize infectious risk has not been established. The most common route of administration of Ig has been intravenously, although there are different options, one of them being the subcutaneous route. Ig replacement therapy has been a life-saving treatment for patients suffering from primary and secondary antibody immunodeficiency. The key role of regular Ig replacement in patients with antibody deficiencies is related to the ability to provide specific antibodies that could not be produced by these patients as demonstrated by the reduction of severe infections such as meningitis and pneumonia. The therapeutic benefits of Ig may also be due to an active role in various anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, which may complicate the clinical picture of PID. Anti-inflammatory activities are seen more generally when intravenous Ig is administered at high dose. The immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities are important not only in the treatment of autoimmune diseases but also in patients suffering from immunodeficiency.
    Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:690. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00690