Risk factors for unplanned transfer to intensive care within 24 hours of admission from the emergency department in an integrated healthcare system.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) ward admissions subsequently transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) within 24 hours have higher mortality than direct ICU admissions. DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS: Describe risk factors for unplanned ICU transfer within 24 hours of ward arrival from the ED. METHODS: Evaluation of 178,315 ED non-ICU admissions to 13 US community hospitals. We tabulated the outcome of unplanned ICU transfer by patient characteristics and hospital volume. We present factors associated with unplanned ICU transfer after adjusting for patient and hospital differences in a hierarchical logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 4252 (2.4%) non-ICU admissions transferred to the ICU within 24 hours. Admitting diagnoses most associated with unplanned transfer, listed by descending prevalence were: pneumonia (odds ratio [OR] 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.9), myocardial infarction (MI) (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-2.0), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.9), sepsis (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.9-3.3), and catastrophic conditions (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.7-3.0). Other significant predictors included: male sex, Comorbidity Points Score >145, Laboratory Acute Physiology Score ≥7, arriving on the ward between 11 PM and 7 AM. Decreased risk was found with admission to monitored transitional care units (OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.77-0.90) and to higher volume hospitals (OR 0.94 per 1,000 additional annual ED inpatient admissions; 95% CI 0.91-0.98). CONCLUSIONS: ED patients admitted with respiratory conditions, MI, or sepsis are at modestly increased risk for unplanned ICU transfer and may benefit from better triage from the ED, earlier intervention, or closer monitoring to prevent acute decompensation. More research is needed to determine how intermediate care units, hospital volume, time of day, and sex affect unplanned ICU transfer. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2012; © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.
- Intensive Care Medicine 10/2014; · 5.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to detail the trajectory and outcomes of patients with severe sepsis admitted from the emergency department to a non-intensive care unit (ICU) setting and identify risk factors associated with adverse outcomes.Journal of Critical Care 07/2014; · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Critical care consults requested shortly after admission could represent a triage error. This consult process has not been adequately assessed, and data are retrospective relying on discharge diagnoses. The aims of this study were to identify reasons for medical Intensive care unit (MICU) consultations within 48 hours of admission and to detect differences between those accepted and those denied MICU admission. Data were prospectively collected including demographics, reason for consultation, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, Elixhauser comorbidity measure, functional status, need for assisted ventilation or vasopressor, presence of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order, and whether a DNR order was obtained after MICU consultation. Ninety-four percent of patients consulted were not initially evaluated in the emergency department, half of whom were accepted. Respiratory failure, sepsis, and alcohol withdrawal were the most frequent reasons for MICU transfers. Factors predicting MICU admission included respiratory illness, better baseline functional status, and less comorbidity, whereas DNR predicted rejection. We did not find differences in hospital mortality; but hospital length of stay was longer. Prospective examination of the consult process suggests that disease progression rather than triage error accounted for most unplanned transfers. Functional status and comorbidity predicted MICU admission rather than illness severity. Goals of care were not being discussed adequately. We did not detect differences in mortality although hospital length of stay was increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Journal of Critical Care 11/2014; · 2.19 Impact Factor