Risk factors for unplanned transfer to intensive care within 24 hours of admission from the emergency department in an integrated healthcare system
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) ward admissions subsequently transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) within 24 hours have higher mortality than direct ICU admissions. DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS: Describe risk factors for unplanned ICU transfer within 24 hours of ward arrival from the ED. METHODS: Evaluation of 178,315 ED non-ICU admissions to 13 US community hospitals. We tabulated the outcome of unplanned ICU transfer by patient characteristics and hospital volume. We present factors associated with unplanned ICU transfer after adjusting for patient and hospital differences in a hierarchical logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 4252 (2.4%) non-ICU admissions transferred to the ICU within 24 hours. Admitting diagnoses most associated with unplanned transfer, listed by descending prevalence were: pneumonia (odds ratio [OR] 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.9), myocardial infarction (MI) (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-2.0), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.9), sepsis (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.9-3.3), and catastrophic conditions (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.7-3.0). Other significant predictors included: male sex, Comorbidity Points Score >145, Laboratory Acute Physiology Score ≥7, arriving on the ward between 11 PM and 7 AM. Decreased risk was found with admission to monitored transitional care units (OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.77-0.90) and to higher volume hospitals (OR 0.94 per 1,000 additional annual ED inpatient admissions; 95% CI 0.91-0.98). CONCLUSIONS: ED patients admitted with respiratory conditions, MI, or sepsis are at modestly increased risk for unplanned ICU transfer and may benefit from better triage from the ED, earlier intervention, or closer monitoring to prevent acute decompensation. More research is needed to determine how intermediate care units, hospital volume, time of day, and sex affect unplanned ICU transfer. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2012; © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of unplanned transfers of adult patients from hospital wards to a neurological intensive care unit (NICU). We retrospectively reviewed consecutive unplanned transfers from hospital wards to the NICU at our institution over a 3-year period. In-hospital mortality rates were compared between patients readmitted to the NICU ("bounce-back transfers") and patients admitted to hospital wards from sources other than the NICU who were then transferred to the NICU ("incident transfers"). We also measured clinical characteristics of transfers, including source of admission and indication for transfer. A total of 446 unplanned transfers from hospital wards to the NICU occurred, of which 39 % were bounce-back transfers. The in-hospital mortality rate associated with all unplanned transfers to the NICU was 17 % and did not differ significantly between bounce-back transfers and incident transfers. Transfers to the NICU within 24 h of admission to a floor service accounted for 32 % of all transfers and were significantly more common for incident transfers than bounce-back transfers (39 vs. 21 %, p = .0002). Of patients admitted via the emergency department who had subsequent incident transfers to the NICU, 50 % were transferred within 24 h of admission. Unplanned transfers to an NICU were common and were associated with a high in-hospital mortality rate. Quality improvement projects should target the triage process and transitions of care to the hospital wards in order to decrease unplanned transfers of high-risk patients to the NICU.Neurocritical Care 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12028-015-0123-z · 2.60 Impact Factor
- Journal of Critical Care 12/2014; 30(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.12.010 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. The objectives of this study were to compare the risk factors for unplanned intensive care unit (ICU) transfer after emergency department (ED) admission in patients with infections and those without infections and to explore the feasibility of using risk stratification tools for sepsis to derive a prediction system for such unplanned transfer. Methods. The ICU transfer group included 313 patients, while the control group included 736 patients randomly selected from those who were not transferred to the ICU. Candidate variables were analyzed for association with unplanned ICU transfer in the 1049 study patients. Results. Twenty-four variables were associated with unplanned ICU transfer. Sixteen (66.7%) of these variables displayed association in patients with infections and those without infections. These common risk factors included specific comorbidities, physiological responses, organ dysfunctions, and other serious symptoms and signs. Several common risk factors were statistically independent. Conclusions. The risk factors for unplanned ICU transfer in patients with infections were comparable to those in patients without infections. The risk factors for unplanned ICU transfer included variables from multiple dimensions that could be organized according to the PIRO (predisposition, insult/infection, physiological response, and organ dysfunction) model, providing the basis for the development of a predictive system.The Scientific World Journal 01/2014; 2014:102929. DOI:10.1155/2014/102929 · 1.73 Impact Factor