Racial and ethnic disparities in meeting Part D MTM eligibility criteria among the non-Medicare population
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association (Impact Factor: 1.24). 09/2012; 52(5):e87-96. DOI: 10.1331/JAPhA.2012.11146
OBJECTIVE To determine whether racial and ethnic minorities were less likely to meet the Medicare Part D eligibility criteria for medication therapy management (MTM) services compared with whites among the adult non-Medicare population, because some non-Medicare health plans have followed the Medicare example. DESIGN Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING United States, 2007-08. PATIENTS 16,691 white, 5,923 black, and 9,242 Hispanic adults (>17 years) among the non-Medicare population. INTERVENTION Analysis of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. MTM eligibility criteria used by Part D plans in 2008 and 2010-11 were examined. Main and sensitivity analyses were conducted to represent the entire range of the eligibility thresholds used by Part D plans. Analyses also were conducted among individuals with heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Proportions and odds of patients meeting Part D MTM eligibility criteria. RESULTS According to the main analysis examining 2008 eligibility criteria, whites had a higher proportion of eligible individuals than did blacks (3.73% vs. 2.57%) and Hispanics (1.53%, P < 0.05 for both comparisons). According to survey-weighted logistic regression adjusting for patient characteristics, blacks and Hispanics had odds ratios for MTM eligibility of 0.60 (95% CI 0.46-0.79) and 0.54 (0.40-0.72), respectively, compared with whites. Sensitivity analyses, analyses examining 2010-11 eligibility criteria, and analyses among individuals with heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension produced similar findings. CONCLUSION Racial and ethnic minorities have lower odds for meeting Part D MTM eligibility criteria than whites among the adult non-Medicare population. MTM eligibility criteria need to be modified to address these disparities.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pharmacists' acceptable level of compensation for medication therapy management (MTM) services needs to be determined using various economic evaluation techniques. OBJECTIVES: Using contingent valuation method, determine pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for MTM services. METHODS: A mailing survey was used to elicit Tennessee (U.S.) pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for a 30-minute MTM session for a new patient with 2 medical conditions, 8 medications, and an annual drug cost of $2000. Three versions of a series of double-bounded, closed-ended, binary discrete choice questions were asked of pharmacists for their willingness to accept (WTA) for an original monetary value ($30, $60, or $90) and then follow-up higher or lower value depending on their responses to the original value. A Kaplan-Meier approach was taken to analyze pharmacists' WTA, and Cox's proportional hazards model was used to examine the effects of pharmacist characteristics on their WTA. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty-eight pharmacists responded to the survey. Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session had a mean of $63.31 and median of $60. The proportions of pharmacists willing to accept $30, $60, and $90 for the given MTM session were 30.61%, 85.19%, and 91.01%, respectively. Pharmacists' characteristics had statistically significant association with their WTA rates. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session is higher than current Medicare MTM programs' compensation levels of $15-$50 and patients' willingness to pay of less than $40. Besides advocating for higher MTM compensation levels by third-party payers, pharmacists also may need to charge patients to reach sufficient compensation levels for MTM services.Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 03/2012; 11(3). DOI:10.1016/j.sapharm.2012.02.001 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that racial and ethnic minorities would be less likely to meet the Medicare eligibility criteria for medication therapy management (MTM) services than their non-Hispanic White counterparts. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether racial and ethnic disparities in health status, health services utilization and costs, and medication utilization patterns among MTM-ineligible individuals differed from MTM-eligible individuals. METHODS: This study analyzed Medicare beneficiaries in 2004-2005 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Various multivariate regressions were employed depending on the nature of dependent variables. Interaction terms between the dummy variables for Blacks (and Hispanics) and MTM eligibility were included to test whether disparity patterns varied between MTM-ineligible and MTM-eligible individuals. Main and sensitivity analyses were conducted for MTM eligibility thresholds for 2006 and 2010. RESULTS: Based on the main analysis for 2006 MTM eligibility criteria, the proportions for self-reported good health status for Whites and Blacks were 82.82% vs. 70.75%, respectively (difference = 12.07%; P < 0.001), among MTM-ineligible population; and 56.98% vs. 52.14%, respectively (difference = 4.84%; P = 0.31), among MTM-eligible population. The difference between these differences was 7.23% (P < 0.001). In the adjusted logistic regression, the interaction effect for Blacks and MTM eligibility had an OR of 1.57 (95% Confidence Interval, or CI = 0.98-2.52) on multiplicative term and difference in odds of 2.38 (95% CI = 1.54-3.22) on additive term. Analyses for disparities between Whites and Hispanics found similar disparity patterns. All analyses for 2006 and 2010 eligibility criteria generally reported similar patterns. Analyses of other measures did not find greater racial or ethnic disparities among the MTM-ineligible than MTM-eligible individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in MTM eligibility may aggravate existing racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes. However, disparities in MTM eligibility may not aggravate existing disparities in health services utilization and costs and medication utilization patterns. Future studies should examine the effects of Medicare Part D on these disparities.Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 06/2013; 10(1). DOI:10.1016/j.sapharm.2013.03.007 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Prior research examining racial and ethnic disparities in meeting Medicare medication therapy management (MTM) eligibility criteria among the non-Medicare population suggests minorities have lower likelihood of being eligible than non-Hispanic Whites (Whites). However, such research has not examined trends in disparities and whether these disparities may be expected to decrease over time based on historical data. Objectives To examine trends in MTM eligibility disparities among the non-Medicare population from 1996-1997 to 2009-2010. Methods This retrospective observational analysis used Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from the two study periods. The MTM eligibility criteria used by health insurance plans in 2008 and 2010 were analyzed. Trends in disparities were examined by including interaction terms between dummy variables for 2009-2010 and non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks)/Hispanics in a logistic regression. Interaction effects were estimated on both the multiplicative and additive terms. Main and sensitivity analyses were conducted to represent the ranges of the Medicare MTM eligibility thresholds used by health insurance plans. Results According to the main analysis, Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to be eligible than Whites for both sets of eligibility criteria in 1996-1997 and in 2009-2010. Trend analysis for both sets of criteria found that on the multiplicative term, there were generally no significant changes in disparities between Whites and Blacks/Hispanics from 1996-1997 to 2009-2010. Interaction on the additive term found evidence that disparities between Whites and Blacks/Hispanics may have increased from 1996-1997 to 2009-2010 (e.g., in the main analysis between Whites and Hispanics for 2010 eligibility criteria: difference in odds= -0.03, 95% CI: [-0.03]-[-0.02]). Conclusions Racial and ethnic minorities in the non-Medicare population experience persistent and often increasing disparities in meeting MTM eligibility criteria. Drug benefit plans should take caution when using elements of Medicare MTM eligibility criteria.Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 03/2014; 10(6). DOI:10.1016/j.sapharm.2014.02.007 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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