Improved antiretroviral refill adherence in HIV-focused community pharmacies
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association (Impact Factor: 1.24). 09/2012; 52(5):e67-73. DOI: 10.1331/JAPhA.2012.11112
OBJECTIVE To determine differences in patient characteristics, antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen characteristics, and regimen refill adherence for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-focused pharmacy (HIV-P) versus traditional pharmacy (TP) users. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING California Walgreens pharmacies from May 2007 to August 2009. PARTICIPANTS HIV-positive patients with greater than 30 days of antiretroviral prescription claims. INTERVENTION Deidentified prescription records for patients filling any ART prescription at any California Walgreens pharmacy during the study period were assessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES ART regimen refill adherence (calculated by modified medication possession ratio [mMPR]) and dichotomous measure of optimal adherence of 95% or greater. RESULTS 4,254 HIV-P and 11,679 TP users were included. Compared with TP users, HIV-P users traveled farther to pharmacies (5.03 vs. 1.26 miles, P < 0.01). A greater proportion of HIV-P users filled prescriptions for chronic diseases (35% vs. 30%) and received fixed-dose combination antiretroviral tablets (92% vs. 83%) (all P < 0.01). Median mMPR was higher for HIV-P users (90% vs. 77%, P < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, gender, insurance, medication use, and distance from pharmacy, use of HIV-P (odds ratio 1.90 [95% CI 1.72-2.08]) and fixed-dose combination antiretroviral tablets (3.34 [2.84-3.96]) were most strongly associated with having 95% or greater ART regimen refill adherence. CONCLUSION For HIV-positive patients struggling with antiretroviral adherence, clinicians may consider minimizing pill burden with combination tablets and referral to an HIV-focused pharmacy.
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ABSTRACT: Patient adherence (the degree to which patients follow their therapeutic regimen as prescribed within a set period of time) and persistence (the time to treatment discontinuation, with a permissible gap) with drug therapy are essential components of HIV/AIDS treatment. Select community pharmacies offer specialized services for HIV/AIDS patients to help combat some of the barriers to adherence and persistence. We assessed adherence and persistence with antiretroviral therapy (ART) for patients using HIV-specialized pharmacies in nine cities from seven states compared to traditional community pharmacy users over a 1-year period. Data were limited to one pharmacy chain. Propensity scoring was used to obtain 1:1 matches for "Specialized" and "Traditional" pharmacy users based on age, gender, number of prescription-inferred chronic conditions (obtained by mapping a patient's prescriptions to the Medi-Span Drug Indications Database), and presence of prescription anxiety and/or depression medication, resulting in 7064 patients in each group. Proportion of days covered (PDC) was used to measure adherence. Specialized pharmacy users had a significantly greater mean (74.1% versus 69.2%, p<0.0001) and median (90.3% versus 86.3%, p<0.0001) PDC. A greater percentage of patients in the Specialized group were able to obtain a PDC of 95% or better (39.3% versus 35.5%). Patients in the Specialized group were significantly more persistent (p=0.0117). Community pharmacies specialized in HIV services may be effective avenues for helping patients achieve greater adherence and persistence with ART. Given the value of specialized community pharmacies, payers should consider implementing policies to encourage the use of such pharmacies for filling ART.AIDS patient care and STDs 08/2012; 26(9):526-31. DOI:10.1089/apc.2012.0189 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: To present a rationale and a proposed structure to support pharmacist-delivered medication therapy management (MTM) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV ) disease and to outline challenges to implementing and sustaining the service. Data sources: Professional literature. Summary: Historically, the effect of pharmacy services for HIV-infected persons has been demonstrated in inpatient and clinic-based settings. Developing similar programs adapted for community pharmacists could be a model of care to improve patient adherence to antiretroviral therapy and retention in care. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy and regular monitoring of CD4+ cell count, HIV RNA viral load, adverse drug events, and adherence form the backbone of successful medical management of HIV infection. Support for these services can be provided to HIV-infected patients through pharmacist-managed HIV MTM programs in community pharmacy settings in collaboration with primary providers and other health care professionals. Conclusion: Community pharmacists can help meet the growing need for HIV care through provision of MTM services. Although resources have been developed, including the general MTM framework, challenges of adequate training, education, and support of community pharmacists need to be addressed in order for HIV MTM to be a successful model.Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 11/2012; 52(6):e287-91. DOI:10.1331/JAPhA.2012.12063 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Observational studies suggest that HIV-focused pharmacies can improve antiretroviral therapy (ART) refill adherence, but there is a lack of clear documentation about the kind and variability of adherence interventions that are conducted.OBJECTIVE: To use qualitative research methods to obtain an in-depth understanding of how ART adherence support and counseling is provided in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-focused community pharmacies. To determine relevant facilitators and barriers around adherence support from both patient's and pharmacist's perspectives. METHODS: A qualitative research study of patients who patronized and pharmacists who were employed at HIV-focused pharmacies in the San Francisco Bay Area was conducted. Participants were recruited using flyers at HIV clinics and community-based organizations and using blurbs in newsletters. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods to determine emergent themes in the data. RESULTS: 19 eligible patients with a self-reported diagnosis of HIV, who were taking their current ART regimen for at least 3 months, and who obtained their ART from a community pharmacy in the San Francisco Bay Area were included; 9 pharmacists who were employed at 9 different pharmacy locations frequented by participants were interviewed. Emergent themes included descriptions of pharmacy adherence counseling and support, roles and responsibilities regarding medication adherence, barriers to providing adherence support, and feeling connected as a facilitator to adherence support relationships. CONCLUSION: Pharmacists provide diverse types of ART adherence support and are uniquely positioned to help clients manage their medications. Additional training on developing relationships with patients and advertising their adherence services may further the role of community pharmacists in supporting antiretroviral adherence.Journal of managed care pharmacy: JMCP 06/2013; 19(6):454-460. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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