Studies from multiple laboratories have identified the roles of several ER stress-induced cell death modulators and effectors. Earlier, we described the role of p23 a small co-chaperone protein in preventing ER stress-induced cell death. p23 is cleaved by caspases at D142 to yield p19 (a 19kDa product) during ER stress-induced cell death. Mutation of the caspase cleavage site not only blocks formation of the 19kDa product but also attenuates the cell death process triggered by various ER stressors. Thus, uncleavable p23 (p23D142N) emerges as a reasonable candidate to test for potential inhibition of neurodegenerative disease phenotype that features misfolded proteins and ER stress. In the present work we report the generation of transgenic mouse lines that overexpress wild-type p23 or uncleavable p23 under the control of a ROSA promoter. These mice should prove useful for studying the role of p23 and/or uncleavable p23 in cellular stress-induced cell death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases implicated in the biochemical and morphological changes that occur during apoptosis (programmed cell death). The loop domain of Bcl-2 is cleaved at Asp34 by caspase-3 (CPP32) in vitro, in cells overexpressing caspase-3, and after induction of apoptosis by Fas ligation and interleukin-3 withdrawal. The carboxyl-terminal Bcl-2 cleavage product triggered cell death and accelerated Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis, which was dependent on the BH3 homology and transmembrane domains of Bcl-2. Inhibitor studies indicated that cleavage of Bcl-2 may further activate downstream caspases and contribute to amplification of the caspase cascade. Cleavage-resistant mutants of Bcl-2 had increased protection from interleukin-3 withdrawal and Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis. Thus, cleavage of Bcl-2 by caspases may ensure the inevitability of cell death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to unambiguously mark a cell's genotype is essential for studies in which genetically distinct cell populations must be distinguished from one another in vivo. One approach to this challenge has been the creation of transgenic mice expressing a transgene marker that is easily detectable, with no background staining. Multiple transgenic mouse strains bearing constructs with different combinations of promoter elements and coding sequences have been described, each with its own advantages and limitations. In this report we describe the use of an 800-bp promoter fragment isolated from the beta(geo) integration site in ROSA26 mice to target expression of two marker genes. We demonstrate that the ROSA26 promoter directs ubiquitous expression of human placental alkaline phosphatase and enhanced green fluorescent protein during embryonic and postnatal development in mouse and rat. We further demonstrate the general utility of these transgenes for marking donor cells in transplantation studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The amyloid beta-protein precursor gives rise to the amyloid beta-protein, the principal constituent of senile plaques and a cytotoxic fragment involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Here we show that amyloid beta-protein precursor was proteolytically cleaved by caspases in the C terminus to generate a second unrelated peptide, called C31. The resultant C31 peptide was a potent inducer of apoptosis. Both caspase-cleaved amyloid beta-protein precursor and activated caspase-9 were present in brains of Alzheimer disease patients but not in control brains. These findings indicate the possibility that caspase cleavage of amyloid beta-protein precursor with the generation of C31 may be involved in the neuronal death associated with Alzheimer disease.
Nature Medicine 05/2000; 6(4):397-404. DOI:10.1038/74656 · 27.36 Impact Factor
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